When Affirmative Action Was White An Untold History of Racial Inequality in Twentieth Century America

When Affirmative Action Was White  An Untold History of Racial Inequality in Twentieth Century America
Author: Ira Katznelson
Pages: 272
ISBN: 9780393347142
Available:
Release: 2006-08-17
Editor: W. W. Norton & Company
Language: en

Explanation of the Book:

A groundbreaking work that exposes the twisted origins of affirmative action. In this "penetrating new analysis" (New York Times Book Review) Ira Katznelson fundamentally recasts our understanding of twentieth-century American history and demonstrates that all the key programs passed during the New Deal and Fair Deal era of the 1930s and 1940s were created in a deeply discriminatory manner. Through mechanisms designed by Southern Democrats that specifically excluded maids and farm workers, the gap between blacks and whites actually widened despite postwar prosperity. In the words of noted historian Eric Foner, "Katznelson's incisive book should change the terms of debate about affirmative action, and about the last seventy years of American history."

Affirmative Action

Affirmative Action
Author: Tim J. Wise
Pages: 200
ISBN: 9781136078422
Available:
Release: 2012-11-12
Editor: Routledge
Language: en

Explanation of the Book:

Affirmative Action examines the larger structure of institutional white privilege in education, and compares the magnitude of white racial preference with the policies typically envisioned when the term "racial preference" is used. In doing so, the book demonstrates that the American system of education is both a reflection of and a contributor to a structure of institutionalized racism and racial preference for the dominant majority.

The Affirmative Action Puzzle

The Affirmative Action Puzzle
Author: Melvin I. Urofsky
Pages: 592
ISBN: 9781101870877
Available:
Release: 2020
Editor: Pantheon
Language: en

Explanation of the Book:

A rich, multifaceted history of affirmative action from the Civil Rights Act of 1866 through today's tumultuous times From acclaimed legal historian, author of a biography of Louis Brandeis ("Remarkable" --Anthony Lewis, The New York Review of Books, "Definitive"--Jeffrey Rosen, The New Republic) and Dissent and the Supreme Court ("Riveting"--Dahlia Lithwick, The New York Times Book Review), a history of affirmative action from its beginning with the Civil Rights Act of 1866 to the first use of the term in 1935 with the enactment of the National Labor Relations Act (the Wagner Act) to 1961 and John F. Kennedy's Executive Order 10925, mandating that federal contractors take "affirmative action" to ensure that there be no discrimination by "race, creed, color, or national origin" down to today's American society. Melvin Urofsky explores affirmative action in relation to sex, gender, and education and shows that nearly every public university in the country has at one time or another instituted some form of affirmative action plan--some successful, others not. Urofsky traces the evolution of affirmative action through labor and the struggle for racial equality, writing of World War I and the exodus that began when some six million African Americans moved northward between 1910 and 1960, one of the greatest internal migrations in the country's history. He describes how Harry Truman, after becoming president in 1945, fought for Roosevelt's Fair Employment Practice Act and, surprising everyone, appointed a distinguished panel to serve as the President's Commission on Civil Rights, as well as appointing the first black judge on a federal appeals court in 1948 and, by executive order later that year, ordering full racial integration in the armed forces. In this important, ambitious, far-reaching book, Urofsky writes about the affirmative action cases decided by the Supreme Court: cases that either upheld or struck down particular plans that affected both governmental and private entities. We come to fully understand the societal impact of affirmative action: how and why it has helped, and inflamed, people of all walks of life; how it has evolved; and how, and why, it is still needed.

For Discrimination

For Discrimination
Author: Randall Kennedy
Pages: 304
ISBN: 9780307949363
Available:
Release: 2015
Editor: Vintage
Language: en

Explanation of the Book:

The Harvard Law School professor and author of the best-selling The Persistence of the Color Line presents an analysis of race in American society that explores its sharply divisive nature while tracing the history of affirmative action and offering insight into related pros and cons. (This book was previously featured in Forecast.) 30,000 first printing.

Affirmative Action Around the World

Affirmative Action Around the World
Author: Thomas Sowell
Pages: 239
ISBN: 0300107757
Available:
Release: 2004-01-01
Editor: Yale University Press
Language: en

Explanation of the Book:

An eminent authority presents a new perspective on affirmative action in a provocative book that will stir fresh debate about this vitally important issue

America in Black and White

America in Black and White
Author: Stephan Thernstrom,Abigail Thernstrom
Pages: 704
ISBN: 1439129096
Available:
Release: 2009-07-14
Editor: Simon and Schuster
Language: en

Explanation of the Book:

In a book destined to become a classic, Stephan and Abigail Thernstrom present important new information about the positive changes that have been achieved and the measurable improvement in the lives of the majority of African-Americans. Supporting their conclusions with statistics on education, earnings, and housing, they argue that the perception of serious racial divisions in this country is outdated -- and dangerous.

White Fragility

White Fragility
Author: Robin DiAngelo
Pages: 192
ISBN: 9780807047422
Available:
Release: 2018-06-26
Editor: Beacon Press
Language: en

Explanation of the Book:

The New York Times best-selling book exploring the counterproductive reactions white people have when their assumptions about race are challenged, and how these reactions maintain racial inequality. In this “vital, necessary, and beautiful book” (Michael Eric Dyson), antiracist educator Robin DiAngelo deftly illuminates the phenomenon of white fragility and “allows us to understand racism as a practice not restricted to ‘bad people’ (Claudia Rankine). Referring to the defensive moves that white people make when challenged racially, white fragility is characterized by emotions such as anger, fear, and guilt, and by behaviors including argumentation and silence. These behaviors, in turn, function to reinstate white racial equilibrium and prevent any meaningful cross-racial dialogue. In this in-depth exploration, DiAngelo examines how white fragility develops, how it protects racial inequality, and what we can do to engage more constructively.

Campus Diversity

Campus Diversity
Author: John M. Carey,Katherine Clayton,Yusaku Horiuchi
Pages: 274
ISBN: 9781108477956
Available:
Release: 2019-12-19
Editor: Cambridge University Press
Language: en

Explanation of the Book:

Media, politicians, and the courts portray college campuses as divided over diversity and affirmative action. But what do students and faculty really think? This book uses a novel technique to elicit honest opinions from students and faculty and measure preferences for diversity in undergraduate admissions and faculty recruitment at seven major universities, breaking out attitudes by participants' race, ethnicity, gender, socio-economic status, and political partisanship. Scholarly excellence is a top priority everywhere, but the authors show that when students consider individual candidates, they favor members of all traditionally underrepresented groups - by race, ethnicity, gender, and socio-economic background. Moreover, there is little evidence of polarization in the attitudes of different student groups. The book reveals that campus communities are less deeply divided than they are often portrayed to be; although affirmative action remains controversial in the abstract, there is broad support for prioritizing diversity in practice.

Invisible Victims

Invisible Victims
Author: Frederick R. Lynch
Pages: 237
ISBN: PSU:000043105618
Available:
Release: 1991
Editor: Praeger Pub Text
Language: en

Explanation of the Book:

"There is nothing quite like Frederick Lynch's book which describes how affirmative action works in real life, and points to some very disturbing effects." Nathan Glazer, Harvard University

White Like Me

White Like Me
Author: Tim Wise
Pages: 438
ISBN: 9781458780911
Available:
Release: 2010-10
Editor: ReadHowYouWant.com
Language: en

Explanation of the Book:

Flipping John Howard Griffin's classic Black Like Me, and extending Noel Ignatiev's How The Irish Became White into the present-day, Wise explores the meanings and consequences of whiteness, and discusses the ways in which racial privilege can harm not just people of color, but also whites. Using stories instead of stale statistics, Wise weaves a narrative that is at once readable and yet scholarly; analytical and yet accessible.

Mismatch

Mismatch
Author: Richard Sander,Stuart Taylor Jr
Pages: 368
ISBN: 9780465030019
Available:
Release: 2012-10-09
Editor: Basic Books
Language: en

Explanation of the Book:

The debate over affirmative action has raged for over four decades, with little give on either side. Most agree that it began as noble effort to jump-start racial integration; many believe it devolved into a patently unfair system of quotas and concealment. Now, with the Supreme Court set to rule on a case that could sharply curtail the use of racial preferences in American universities, law professor Richard Sander and legal journalist Stuart Taylor offer a definitive account of what affirmative action has become, showing that while the objective is laudable, the effects have been anything but. Sander and Taylor have long admired affirmative action's original goals, but after many years of studying racial preferences, they have reached a controversial but undeniable conclusion: that preferences hurt underrepresented minorities far more than they help them. At the heart of affirmative action's failure is a simple phenomenon called mismatch. Using dramatic new data and numerous interviews with affected former students and university officials of color, the authors show how racial preferences often put students in competition with far better-prepared classmates, dooming many to fall so far behind that they can never catch up. Mismatch largely explains why, even though black applicants are more likely to enter college than whites with similar backgrounds, they are far less likely to finish; why there are so few black and Hispanic professionals with science and engineering degrees and doctorates; why black law graduates fail bar exams at four times the rate of whites; and why universities accept relatively affluent minorities over working class and poor people of all races. Sander and Taylor believe it is possible to achieve the goal of racial equality in higher education, but they argue that alternative policies -- such as full public disclosure of all preferential admission policies, a focused commitment to improving socioeconomic diversity on campuses, outreach to minority communities, and a renewed focus on K-12 schooling -- will go farther in achieving that goal than preferences, while also allowing applicants to make informed decisions. Bold, controversial, and deeply researched, Mismatch calls for a renewed examination of this most divisive of social programs -- and for reforms that will help realize the ultimate goal of racial equality.

The Pursuit of Fairness

The Pursuit of Fairness
Author: Terry H. Anderson
Pages: 344
ISBN: 0198035837
Available:
Release: 2004-06-07
Editor: Oxford University Press
Language: en

Explanation of the Book:

Affirmative action strikes at the heart of deeply held beliefs about employment and education, about fairness, and about the troubled history of race relations in America. Published on the 50th anniversary of Brown v. Board of Education, this is the only book available that gives readers a balanced, non-polemical, and lucid account of this highly contentious issue. Beginning with the roots of affirmative action, Anderson describes African-American demands for employment in the defense industry--spearheaded by A. Philip Randolph's threatened March on Washington in July 1941--and the desegregation of the armed forces after World War II. He investigates President Kennedy's historic 1961 executive order that introduced the term "affirmative action" during the early years of the civil rights movement and he examines President Johnson's attempts to gain equal opportunities for African Americans. He describes President Nixon's expansion of affirmative action with the Philadelphia Plan--which the Supreme Court upheld--along with President Carter's introduction of "set asides" for minority businesses and the Bakke ruling which allowed the use of race as one factor in college admissions. By the early 1980s many citizens were becoming alarmed by affirmative action, and that feeling was exemplified by the Reagan administration's backlash, which resulted in the demise and revision of affirmative action during the Clinton years. He concludes with a look at the University of Michigan cases of 2003, the current status of the policy, and its impact. Throughout, the author weighs each side of every issue--often finding merit in both arguments--resulting in an eminently fair account of one of America's most heated debates. A colorful history that brings to life the politicians, legal minds, and ordinary people who have fought for or against affirmative action, The Pursuit of Fairness helps clear the air and calm the emotions, as it illuminates a difficult and critically important issue.

Why I m No Longer Talking to White People About Race

Why I   m No Longer Talking to White People About Race
Author: Reni Eddo-Lodge
Pages: 272
ISBN: 9781526633927
Available:
Release: 2020-11-12
Editor: Bloomsbury Publishing
Language: en

Explanation of the Book:

'Every voice raised against racism chips away at its power. We can't afford to stay silent. This book is an attempt to speak' The book that sparked a national conversation. Exploring everything from eradicated black history to the inextricable link between class and race, Why I'm No Longer Talking to White People About Race is the essential handbook for anyone who wants to understand race relations in Britain today. THE NO.1 SUNDAY TIMES BESTSELLER WINNER OF THE BRITISH BOOK AWARDS NON-FICTION NARRATIVE BOOK OF THE YEAR 2018 FOYLES NON-FICTION BOOK OF THE YEAR BLACKWELL'S NON-FICTION BOOK OF THE YEAR WINNER OF THE JHALAK PRIZE LONGLISTED FOR THE BAILLIE GIFFORD PRIZE FOR NON-FICTION LONGLISTED FOR THE ORWELL PRIZE SHORTLISTED FOR A BOOKS ARE MY BAG READERS AWARD

Fear Itself The New Deal and the Origins of Our Time

Fear Itself  The New Deal and the Origins of Our Time
Author: Ira Katznelson
Pages: 720
ISBN: 9780871406606
Available:
Release: 2013-03-01
Editor: W. W. Norton & Company
Language: en

Explanation of the Book:

“A powerful argument, swept along by Katznelson’s robust prose and the imposing scholarship that lies behind it.”—Kevin Boyle, New York Times Book Review A work that “deeply reconceptualizes the New Deal and raises countless provocative questions” (David Kennedy), Fear Itself changes the ground rules for our understanding of this pivotal era in American history. Ira Katznelson examines the New Deal through the lens of a pervasive, almost existential fear that gripped a world defined by the collapse of capitalism and the rise of competing dictatorships, as well as a fear created by the ruinous racial divisions in American society. Katznelson argues that American democracy was both saved and distorted by a Faustian collaboration that guarded racial segregation as it built a new national state to manage capitalism and assert global power. Fear Itself charts the creation of the modern American state and “how a belief in the common good gave way to a central government dominated by interest-group politics and obsessed with national security” (Louis Menand, The New Yorker).

Schooling for All

Schooling for All
Author: Ira Katznelson,Margaret Weir
Pages: 258
ISBN: 0520062523
Available:
Release: 1988-01-01
Editor: Univ of California Press
Language: en

Explanation of the Book:

The Diversity Bargain

The Diversity Bargain
Author: Natasha K. Warikoo
Pages: 320
ISBN: 9780226651071
Available:
Release: 2019-02-22
Editor: University of Chicago Press
Language: en

Explanation of the Book:

We’ve heard plenty from politicians and experts on affirmative action and higher education, about how universities should intervene—if at all—to ensure a diverse but deserving student population. But what about those for whom these issues matter the most? In this book, Natasha K. Warikoo deeply explores how students themselves think about merit and race at a uniquely pivotal moment: after they have just won the most competitive game of their lives and gained admittance to one of the world’s top universities. What Warikoo uncovers—talking with both white students and students of color at Harvard, Brown, and Oxford—is absolutely illuminating; and some of it is positively shocking. As she shows, many elite white students understand the value of diversity abstractly, but they ignore the real problems that racial inequality causes and that diversity programs are meant to solve. They stand in fear of being labeled a racist, but they are quick to call foul should a diversity program appear at all to hamper their own chances for advancement. The most troubling result of this ambivalence is what she calls the “diversity bargain,” in which white students reluctantly agree with affirmative action as long as it benefits them by providing a diverse learning environment—racial diversity, in this way, is a commodity, a selling point on a brochure. And as Warikoo shows, universities play a big part in creating these situations. The way they talk about race on campus and the kinds of diversity programs they offer have a huge impact on student attitudes, shaping them either toward ambivalence or, in better cases, toward more productive and considerate understandings of racial difference. Ultimately, this book demonstrates just how slippery the notions of race, merit, and privilege can be. In doing so, it asks important questions not just about college admissions but what the elite students who have succeeded at it—who will be the world’s future leaders—will do with the social inequalities of the wider world.

Whitewashing Race

Whitewashing Race
Author: Michael K. Brown,Martin Carnoy,Elliott Currie,Professor of Criminology Law and Society Elliott Currie,Troy Duster,David B. Oppenheimer,David Wellman,Marjorie M. Shultz
Pages: 338
ISBN: 9780520237063
Available:
Release: 2003-09-18
Editor: Univ of California Press
Language: en

Explanation of the Book:

The myth of a color-blind society is deconstructed in this powerful new look at race in America that consults sociologists, economists, criminologists, political scientists, and legal scholars in the search for answers to why so many white Americans think racism is no longer a problem. (Social Science)

A History of Affirmative Action 1619 2000

A History of Affirmative Action  1619 2000
Author: Philip F. Rubio
Pages: 342
ISBN: 9781604730319
Available:
Release: 2009-09-18
Editor: Univ. Press of Mississippi
Language: en

Explanation of the Book:

A readable history that puts the current debates in historical context

White Guys on Campus

White Guys on Campus
Author: Nolan L Cabrera
Pages: 208
ISBN: 9780813599083
Available:
Release: 2018-11-15
Editor: Rutgers University Press
Language: en

Explanation of the Book:

On April 22, 2015, Boston University professor Saida Grundy set off a Twitter storm with her provocative question: “Why is white America so reluctant to identify white college males as a problem population?” White Guys on Campus is a critical examination of race in higher education, centering Whiteness, in an effort to unveil the frequently unconscious habits of racism among White male undergraduates. Nolan L. Cabrera moves beyond the “few bad apples” frame of contemporary racism, and explores the structures, policies, ideologies, and experiences that allow racism to flourish. This book details many of the contours of contemporary, systemic racism, while engaging the possibility of White students to participate in anti-racism. Ultimately, White Guys on Campus calls upon institutions of higher education to be sites of social transformation instead of reinforcing systemic racism, while creating a platform to engage and challenge the public discourse of “post- racialism.”

So You Want to Talk About Race

So You Want to Talk About Race
Author: Ijeoma Oluo
Pages: 272
ISBN: 9781541619227
Available:
Release: 2019-09-24
Editor: Seal Press
Language: en

Explanation of the Book:

In this New York Times bestseller, Ijeoma Oluo offers a hard-hitting but user-friendly examination of race in America Widespread reporting on aspects of white supremacy -- from police brutality to the mass incarceration of Black Americans -- has put a media spotlight on racism in our society. Still, it is a difficult subject to talk about. How do you tell your roommate her jokes are racist? Why did your sister-in-law take umbrage when you asked to touch her hair -- and how do you make it right? How do you explain white privilege to your white, privileged friend? In So You Want to Talk About Race, Ijeoma Oluo guides readers of all races through subjects ranging from intersectionality and affirmative action to "model minorities" in an attempt to make the seemingly impossible possible: honest conversations about race and racism, and how they infect almost every aspect of American life. "Oluo gives us -- both white people and people of color -- that language to engage in clear, constructive, and confident dialogue with each other about how to deal with racial prejudices and biases." -- National Book Review "Generous and empathetic, yet usefully blunt . . . it's for anyone who wants to be smarter and more empathetic about matters of race and engage in more productive anti-racist action." -- Salon (Required Reading)