When Affirmative Action Was White An Untold History of Racial Inequality in Twentieth Century America

When Affirmative Action Was White  An Untold History of Racial Inequality in Twentieth Century America
Author: Ira Katznelson
Pages: 272
ISBN: 9780393347142
Available:
Release: 2006-08-17
Editor: W. W. Norton & Company
Language: un

Explanation of the Book:

A groundbreaking work that exposes the twisted origins of affirmative action. In this "penetrating new analysis" (New York Times Book Review) Ira Katznelson fundamentally recasts our understanding of twentieth-century American history and demonstrates that all the key programs passed during the New Deal and Fair Deal era of the 1930s and 1940s were created in a deeply discriminatory manner. Through mechanisms designed by Southern Democrats that specifically excluded maids and farm workers, the gap between blacks and whites actually widened despite postwar prosperity. In the words of noted historian Eric Foner, "Katznelson's incisive book should change the terms of debate about affirmative action, and about the last seventy years of American history."

The Woman Behind the New Deal

The Woman Behind the New Deal
Author: Kirstin Downey
Pages: 458
ISBN: 9781400078561
Available:
Release: 2010
Editor: Anchor
Language: en

Explanation of the Book:

Presents a portrait of the first female cabinet member and one of the most influential women of the twentieth century, whose efforts to improve the lives of America's working people resulted in such initiatives as unemployment insurance and Social Security.

Freedom Is Not Enough

Freedom Is Not Enough
Author: Nancy MacLean
Pages: 496
ISBN: 9780674265714
Available:
Release: 2008-03-15
Editor: Harvard University Press
Language: en

Explanation of the Book:

In the 1950s, the exclusion of women and of black and Latino men from higher-paying jobs was so universal as to seem normal to most Americans. Today, diversity in the workforce is a point of pride. How did such a transformation come about? In this bold and groundbreaking work, Nancy MacLean shows how African-American and later Mexican-American civil rights activists and feminists concluded that freedom alone would not suffice: access to jobs at all levels is a requisite of full citizenship. Tracing the struggle to open the American workplace to all, MacLean chronicles the cultural and political advances that have irrevocably changed our nation over the past fifty years. Freedom Is Not Enough reveals the fundamental role jobs play in the struggle for equality. We meet the grassroots activists—rank-and-file workers, community leaders, trade unionists, advocates, lawyers—and their allies in government who fight for fair treatment, as we also witness the conservative forces that assembled to resist their demands. Weaving a powerful and memorable narrative, MacLean demonstrates the life-altering impact of the Civil Rights Act and the movement for economic advancement that it fostered. The struggle for jobs reached far beyond the workplace to transform American culture. MacLean enables us to understand why so many came to see good jobs for all as the measure of full citizenship in a vital democracy. Opening up the workplace, she shows, opened minds and hearts to the genuine inclusion of all Americans for the first time in our nation’s history.

Affirmative Action

Affirmative Action
Author: Tim J. Wise
Pages: 200
ISBN: 9781136078422
Available:
Release: 2012-11-12
Editor: Routledge
Language: en

Explanation of the Book:

Affirmative Action examines the larger structure of institutional white privilege in education, and compares the magnitude of white racial preference with the policies typically envisioned when the term "racial preference" is used. In doing so, the book demonstrates that the American system of education is both a reflection of and a contributor to a structure of institutionalized racism and racial preference for the dominant majority.

The Affirmative Action Puzzle

The Affirmative Action Puzzle
Author: Melvin I. Urofsky
Pages: 592
ISBN: 9781101870877
Available:
Release: 2020
Editor: Pantheon
Language: en

Explanation of the Book:

A rich, multifaceted history of affirmative action from the Civil Rights Act of 1866 through today's tumultuous times From acclaimed legal historian, author of a biography of Louis Brandeis ("Remarkable" --Anthony Lewis, The New York Review of Books, "Definitive"--Jeffrey Rosen, The New Republic) and Dissent and the Supreme Court ("Riveting"--Dahlia Lithwick, The New York Times Book Review), a history of affirmative action from its beginning with the Civil Rights Act of 1866 to the first use of the term in 1935 with the enactment of the National Labor Relations Act (the Wagner Act) to 1961 and John F. Kennedy's Executive Order 10925, mandating that federal contractors take "affirmative action" to ensure that there be no discrimination by "race, creed, color, or national origin" down to today's American society. Melvin Urofsky explores affirmative action in relation to sex, gender, and education and shows that nearly every public university in the country has at one time or another instituted some form of affirmative action plan--some successful, others not. Urofsky traces the evolution of affirmative action through labor and the struggle for racial equality, writing of World War I and the exodus that began when some six million African Americans moved northward between 1910 and 1960, one of the greatest internal migrations in the country's history. He describes how Harry Truman, after becoming president in 1945, fought for Roosevelt's Fair Employment Practice Act and, surprising everyone, appointed a distinguished panel to serve as the President's Commission on Civil Rights, as well as appointing the first black judge on a federal appeals court in 1948 and, by executive order later that year, ordering full racial integration in the armed forces. In this important, ambitious, far-reaching book, Urofsky writes about the affirmative action cases decided by the Supreme Court: cases that either upheld or struck down particular plans that affected both governmental and private entities. We come to fully understand the societal impact of affirmative action: how and why it has helped, and inflamed, people of all walks of life; how it has evolved; and how, and why, it is still needed.

For Discrimination

For Discrimination
Author: Randall Kennedy
Pages: 304
ISBN: 9780307949363
Available:
Release: 2015
Editor: Vintage
Language: en

Explanation of the Book:

The Harvard Law School professor and author of the best-selling The Persistence of the Color Line presents an analysis of race in American society that explores its sharply divisive nature while tracing the history of affirmative action and offering insight into related pros and cons. (This book was previously featured in Forecast.) 30,000 first printing.

White Fragility

White Fragility
Author: Robin DiAngelo
Pages: 192
ISBN: 9780807047422
Available:
Release: 2018-06-26
Editor: Beacon Press
Language: en

Explanation of the Book:

The New York Times best-selling book exploring the counterproductive reactions white people have when their assumptions about race are challenged, and how these reactions maintain racial inequality. In this “vital, necessary, and beautiful book” (Michael Eric Dyson), antiracist educator Robin DiAngelo deftly illuminates the phenomenon of white fragility and “allows us to understand racism as a practice not restricted to ‘bad people’ (Claudia Rankine). Referring to the defensive moves that white people make when challenged racially, white fragility is characterized by emotions such as anger, fear, and guilt, and by behaviors including argumentation and silence. These behaviors, in turn, function to reinstate white racial equilibrium and prevent any meaningful cross-racial dialogue. In this in-depth exploration, DiAngelo examines how white fragility develops, how it protects racial inequality, and what we can do to engage more constructively.

The Ironies of Affirmative Action

The Ironies of Affirmative Action
Author: John David Skrentny
Pages: 326
ISBN: 9780226216423
Available:
Release: 2018-12-01
Editor: University of Chicago Press
Language: en

Explanation of the Book:

Affirmative action has been fiercely debated for more than a quarter of a century, producing much partisan literature, but little serious scholarship and almost nothing on its cultural and political origins. The Ironies of Affirmative Action is the first book-length, comprehensive, historical account of the development of affirmative action. Analyzing both the resistance from the Right and the support from the Left, Skrentny brings to light the unique moral culture that has shaped the affirmative action debate, allowing for starkly different policies for different citizens. He also shows, through an analysis of historical documents and court rulings, the complex and intriguing political circumstances which gave rise to these controversial policies. By exploring the mystery of how it took less than five years for a color-blind policy to give way to one that explicitly took race into account, Skrentny uncovers and explains surprising ironies: that affirmative action was largely created by white males and initially championed during the Nixon administration; that many civil rights leaders at first avoided advocacy of racial preferences; and that though originally a political taboo, almost no one resisted affirmative action. With its focus on the historical and cultural context of policy elites, The Ironies of Affirmative Action challenges dominant views of policymaking and politics.

Affirmative Action Around the World

Affirmative Action Around the World
Author: Thomas Sowell
Pages: 239
ISBN: 0300107757
Available:
Release: 2004-01-01
Editor: Yale University Press
Language: en

Explanation of the Book:

An eminent authority presents a new perspective on affirmative action in a provocative book that will stir fresh debate about this vitally important issue

Whitewashing Race

Whitewashing Race
Author: Michael K. Brown,Martin Carnoy,Elliott Currie,Professor of Criminology Law and Society Elliott Currie,Troy Duster,David B. Oppenheimer,David Wellman,Marjorie M. Shultz
Pages: 338
ISBN: 9780520237063
Available:
Release: 2003-09-18
Editor: Univ of California Press
Language: en

Explanation of the Book:

The myth of a color-blind society is deconstructed in this powerful new look at race in America that consults sociologists, economists, criminologists, political scientists, and legal scholars in the search for answers to why so many white Americans think racism is no longer a problem. (Social Science)

The End of Racism

The End of Racism
Author: Dinesh D'Souza
Pages: 756
ISBN: 9780684825243
Available:
Release: 1996-09-30
Editor: Simon and Schuster
Language: en

Explanation of the Book:

Presents the author's definition of racism, arguing that it is a cultural phenomenon specific to Western regions and tracing its history while evaluating its potential to end

The Pursuit of Fairness

The Pursuit of Fairness
Author: Terry H. Anderson
Pages: 344
ISBN: 0198035837
Available:
Release: 2004-06-07
Editor: Oxford University Press
Language: en

Explanation of the Book:

Affirmative action strikes at the heart of deeply held beliefs about employment and education, about fairness, and about the troubled history of race relations in America. Published on the 50th anniversary of Brown v. Board of Education, this is the only book available that gives readers a balanced, non-polemical, and lucid account of this highly contentious issue. Beginning with the roots of affirmative action, Anderson describes African-American demands for employment in the defense industry--spearheaded by A. Philip Randolph's threatened March on Washington in July 1941--and the desegregation of the armed forces after World War II. He investigates President Kennedy's historic 1961 executive order that introduced the term "affirmative action" during the early years of the civil rights movement and he examines President Johnson's attempts to gain equal opportunities for African Americans. He describes President Nixon's expansion of affirmative action with the Philadelphia Plan--which the Supreme Court upheld--along with President Carter's introduction of "set asides" for minority businesses and the Bakke ruling which allowed the use of race as one factor in college admissions. By the early 1980s many citizens were becoming alarmed by affirmative action, and that feeling was exemplified by the Reagan administration's backlash, which resulted in the demise and revision of affirmative action during the Clinton years. He concludes with a look at the University of Michigan cases of 2003, the current status of the policy, and its impact. Throughout, the author weighs each side of every issue--often finding merit in both arguments--resulting in an eminently fair account of one of America's most heated debates. A colorful history that brings to life the politicians, legal minds, and ordinary people who have fought for or against affirmative action, The Pursuit of Fairness helps clear the air and calm the emotions, as it illuminates a difficult and critically important issue.

Campus Diversity

Campus Diversity
Author: John M. Carey,Katherine Clayton,Yusaku Horiuchi
Pages: 274
ISBN: 9781108477956
Available:
Release: 2019-12-19
Editor: Cambridge University Press
Language: en

Explanation of the Book:

Media, politicians, and the courts portray college campuses as divided over diversity and affirmative action. But what do students and faculty really think? This book uses a novel technique to elicit honest opinions from students and faculty and measure preferences for diversity in undergraduate admissions and faculty recruitment at seven major universities, breaking out attitudes by participants' race, ethnicity, gender, socio-economic status, and political partisanship. Scholarly excellence is a top priority everywhere, but the authors show that when students consider individual candidates, they favor members of all traditionally underrepresented groups - by race, ethnicity, gender, and socio-economic background. Moreover, there is little evidence of polarization in the attitudes of different student groups. The book reveals that campus communities are less deeply divided than they are often portrayed to be; although affirmative action remains controversial in the abstract, there is broad support for prioritizing diversity in practice.

America in Black and White

America in Black and White
Author: Stephan Thernstrom,Abigail Thernstrom
Pages: 704
ISBN: 1439129096
Available:
Release: 2009-07-14
Editor: Simon and Schuster
Language: en

Explanation of the Book:

In a book destined to become a classic, Stephan and Abigail Thernstrom present important new information about the positive changes that have been achieved and the measurable improvement in the lives of the majority of African-Americans. Supporting their conclusions with statistics on education, earnings, and housing, they argue that the perception of serious racial divisions in this country is outdated -- and dangerous.

Schooling for All

Schooling for All
Author: Ira Katznelson,Margaret Weir
Pages: 258
ISBN: 0520062523
Available:
Release: 1988-01-01
Editor: Univ of California Press
Language: en

Explanation of the Book:

Beyond Black and White

Beyond Black and White
Author: Manning Marable
Pages: 236
ISBN: 1859840493
Available:
Release: 1995
Editor: Verso
Language: en

Explanation of the Book:

A generation removed from the Civil Rights Movement and the Black Power explosion of the 1960s, the pursuit of racial equality and social justice for African-Americans seems more elusive than ever. The realities of contemporary black America capture the nature of the crisis: life expectancy for black males is now below retirement age; median black income is less than 60 per cent that of whites; over 600,000 African-Americans are incarcerated in the US penal system; 23 per cent of all black males between the ages of eighteen and 29 are either in jail, on probation or parole, or awaiting trial. At the same time, affirmative action programs and civil rights reforms are being challenged by white conservatism. Confronted with a renascent right and the continuing burden of grotesque inequality, Manning Marable argues that the black struggle must move beyond previous strategies for social change. The politics of black nationalism, which advocates the building of separate black institutions, is an insufficient response. The politics of integration, characterized by traditional middle-class organizations like the NAACP and Urban League, seeks only representation without genuine power. Instead, a transformationist approach is required, one that can embrace the unique cultural identity of African-Americans while restructuring power and privilege in American society. Only a strategy of radical democracy can ultimately deconstruct race as a social force. Beyond Black and White brilliantly dissects the politics of race and class in the US of the 1990s. Topics include: the Clarence Thomas-Anita Hill controversy; the factors behind the rise and fall of Jesse Jackson's Rainbow Coalition: Benjamin Chavis and the conflicts within the NAAPC; and the national debate over affirmative action. Marable outlines the current debates in the black community between liberals, 'Afrocentrists', and the advocates of social transformation. He advances a political vision capable of drawing together minorities into a majority which can throw open the portals of power and govern in its own name.

The Affirmative Action Debate

The Affirmative Action Debate
Author: George Curry,Cornel West,Editors
Pages: 368
ISBN: STANFORD:36105011858409
Available:
Release: 1996-06-20
Editor: Unknown
Language: en

Explanation of the Book:

Politicians, executives, lawyers, and social researchers discuss affirmative action policies, their benefits and problems, and alternative solutions to discrimination

Diversity in Engineering

Diversity in Engineering
Author: National Academy of Engineering,Committee on Diversity in the Engineering Workforce
Pages: 170
ISBN: 9780309084291
Available:
Release: 2002-07-19
Editor: National Academies Press
Language: en

Explanation of the Book:

This report contains fifteen presentations from a workshop on best practices in managing diversity, hosted by the NAE Committee on Diversity in the Engineering Workforce on October 29-30, 2001. NAE (National Academy of Engineering) president William Wulf, IBM vice-president Nicholas Donofrio, and Ford vice-president James Padilla address the business case for diversity, and representatives of leading engineering employers discuss how to increase the recruitment, retention, and advancement of women and underrepresented minorities in engineering careers. Other speakers focus on mentoring, globalization, affirmative action backlash, and dealing with lawsuits. Corporate engineering and human resources managers attended the workshop and discussed diversity issues faced by corporations that employ engineers. Summaries of the discussions are also included in the report.

White Supremacy and Racism in the Post civil Rights Era

White Supremacy and Racism in the Post civil Rights Era
Author: Eduardo Bonilla-Silva
Pages: 223
ISBN: 1588260321
Available:
Release: 2001
Editor: Lynne Rienner Publishers
Language: en

Explanation of the Book:

Is a racial structure still firmly in place in the United States? White Supremacy and Racism answers that question with an unequivocal yes, describing a contemporary system that operates in a covert, subtle, institutional, and superficially nonracial fash on. Assessing the major perspectives that social analysts have relied on to explain race and racial relations, Bonilla-Silva labels the post-civil rights ideology as color-blind racism: a system of social arrangements that maintain white privilege at all levels. His analysis of racial politics in the United States makes a compelling argument for a new civil rights movement rooted in the race-class needs of minority masses, multiracial in character - and focused on attaining substantive rather than formal equality.

Invisible Victims

Invisible Victims
Author: Frederick R. Lynch
Pages: 237
ISBN: 0275941027
Available:
Release: 1991
Editor: Praeger Pub Text
Language: en

Explanation of the Book:

"There is nothing quite like Frederick Lynch's book which describes how affirmative action works in real life, and points to some very disturbing effects." Nathan Glazer, Harvard University