The Iran Wars
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|Author||: Jay Solomon|
|Editor||: Random House|
From Qasem Soleimani to the nuclear deal, a deeply reported exploration of Iran’s decades-long power struggle with the United States—in the tradition of Steve Coll’s Ghost Wars and Lawrence Wright’s The Looming Tower “A front-row view of the spy games, assassinations, political intrigue and high-stakes diplomacy that have defined relations with one of America’s most cunning and dangerous foes.”—Joby Warrick, Pulitzer Prize–winning author of Black Flags: The Rise of ISIS For more than a decade, the United States has been engaged in a war with Iran as momentous as any other in the Middle East—a war all the more significant as it has largely been hidden from public view. Through a combination of economic sanctions, global diplomacy, and intelligence work, successive U.S. administrations have struggled to contain Iran’s aspirations to become a nuclear power and dominate the region—what many view as the most serious threat to peace in the Middle East. Meanwhile, Iran has used regional instability to its advantage to undermine America’s interests. The Iran Wars is an absorbing account of a battle waged on many levels—military, financial, and covert. Jay Solomon’s book is the product of extensive in-depth reporting and interviews with all the key players in the conflict—from high-ranking Iranian officials to Secretary of State John Kerry and his negotiating team. With a reporter’s masterly investigative eye and the narrative dexterity of a great historian, Solomon shows how Iran’s nuclear development went unnoticed for years by the international community only to become its top security concern. He catalogs the blunders of both the Bush and Obama administrations as they grappled with how to engage Iran, producing a series of both carrots and sticks. And he takes us inside the hotel suites where the 2015 nuclear agreement was negotiated, offering a frank assessment of the uncertain future of the U.S.-Iran relationship. This is a book rife with revelations, from the secret communications between the Obama administration and the Iranian government to dispatches from the front lines of the new field of financial warfare. For readers of Steve Coll’s Ghost Wars and Lawrence Wright’s The Looming Tower, The Iran Wars exposes the hidden history of a conflict whose outcome could have far-reaching geopolitical implications.
|Author||: Pierre Razoux|
|Editor||: Harvard University Press|
From 1980 to 1988 Iran and Iraq fought the longest conventional war of the century. It included tragic slaughter of child soldiers, use of chemical weapons, striking of civilian shipping, and destruction of cities. Pierre Razoux offers an unflinching look at a conflict seared into the region’s collective memory but little understood in the West.
|Author||: Dilip Hiro|
|Editor||: Psychology Press|
In The Longest War, Dilip Hiro describes the causes and courses of the Iran-Iraq military conflict and its effect on the two antagonists, as well as the rest of the world. He reveals the intricate twists and turns of international diplomacy and the realpolitik behind the rhetoric, providing a comprehensive and admirably balanced account of the political and military aspects of the "longest war."
|Author||: Narges Bajoghli,Amir Moosavi|
The Iran-Iraq War (1980–1988) is a cornerstone of the Islamic Republic of Iran’s existence. It entrenched the newly established regime and provided the means for its consolidation of power in the country following the 1979 Revolution. Officially recognized as the "War of Sacred Defense", the Iranian government has been careful to control public discourse and cultural representation concerning the war since the since wartime. Nearly 30 years since the war’s end, however, debates around the war and its aftermath are still very much alive in Iran today. This volume uncovers what some of those debates mean, nearly 30 years since the war's end. The chapters in this volume take a fresh look at the far-reaching legacies of the Iran-Iraq War in Iran today – a war that dominated the first decade of the Islamic Republic’s existence. The chapters examine the political, social and cultural ramifications of the war and the wide range of debates that surround it. The chapters in this book were originally published in Middle East Critique.
|Author||: Efraim Karsh|
|Editor||: Osprey Publishing|
The Iran-Iraq War, which ended in August 1988, one month short of its eighth anniversary, was one of the longest, bloodiest and costliest Third World armed conflicts in the twentieth century. Professor Karsh addresses the causes of the Iran-Iraq War, unpacking the objectives of the two belligerents and examining how far objectives were matched by strategy. He assesses the war's military lessons regarding such key areas as strategy, tactics and escalation and in particular the use of non-conventional weapons, Finally, he examines the utility of armed force as an instrument of foreign policy.
|Author||: Rob Johnson|
|Editor||: Macmillan International Higher Education|
The Iran-Iraq War was personified by the determination and ambition of the key leaders, Saddam Hussein and Ayatollah Khomeini, and characterised by mass casualties, the repression of the civilian populations and chemical warfare. Fought with lucrative oil money, it left the belligerents with crippling debts. In this important reappraisal, Rob Johnson explores the major issues surrounding the war, offers a fresh analysis of the military aspects and assesses the far-reaching consequences for the wider world. It is essential reading for anyone who wishes to understand the ensuing conflicts in the reqion, including the invasion of Iraq in 2003.
|Author||: Williamson Murray,Kevin M. Woods|
|Editor||: Cambridge University Press|
A comprehensive account of the Iran-Iraq War through the lens of the Iraqi regime and its senior military commanders.
|Author||: Williamson Murray,Kevin Woods|
|Editor||: Cambridge University Press|
The Iran-Iraq War is one of the largest, yet least documented conflicts in the history of the Middle East. Drawing from an extensive cache of captured Iraqi government records, this book is the first comprehensive military and strategic account of the war through the lens of the Iraqi regime and its senior military commanders. It explores the rationale and decision-making processes that drove the Iraqis as they grappled with challenges that, at times, threatened their existence. Beginning with the bizarre lack of planning by the Iraqis in their invasion of Iran, the authors reveal Saddam's desperate attempts to improve the competence of an officer corps that he had purged to safeguard its loyalty to his tyranny, and then to weather the storm of suicidal attacks by Iranian religious revolutionaries. This is a unique and important contribution to our understanding of the history of war and the contemporary Middle East.
|Author||: Ofira Seliktar,Farhad Rezaei|
|Editor||: Springer Nature|
This book analyzes the historical quest of the Islamic Republic of Iran to export its revolution to the Muslim countries in the Middle East and beyond. The authors argue that Iran exported its revolution by using proxies such as Hezbollah, the Iraqi Shite militias, and the Houthis. The study unravels the casual chain behind less-known cases of Iranian sponsorship of al Qaeda (Central) and al Qaida in Iraq. It combines rigorous theory with detailed empirical analysis which can add to the current debate about ways to roll back Iran’s revolutionary export.
|Author||: Kaveh Farrokh|
|Editor||: Bloomsbury Publishing|
Following on from his award-winning book on the history of ancient Persia, Kaveh Farrokh goes on to examine Iran's wartime history from the Safavid dynasty of the 16th and 17th century through to the 1979 Revolution and beyond. He shows how the early military successes were followed by centuries of defeat as the external influences of nations like Russia and Britain began to shape the internal history of Iran, before unraveling the complex, violent 20th century military history of the country, which encompasses two world wars, regional movements, foreign intervention, anti-government revolts, conflicts on the Soviet border, a revolution and an eight-year war with Iraq. Illustrated with contemporary illustrations and photographs this book provides an unparalleled investigation into the bloody martial history of Iran.
|Author||: David Crist|
The dramatic secret history of our undeclared thirty-year conflict with Iran, revealing newsbreaking episodes of covert and deadly operations that brought the two nations to the brink of open war For three decades, the United States and Iran have engaged in a secret war. It is a conflict that has never been acknowledged and a story that has never been told. This surreptitious war began with the Iranian revolution and simmers today inside Iraq and in the Persian Gulf. Fights rage in the shadows, between the CIA and its network of spies and Iran's intelligence agency. Battles are fought at sea with Iranians in small speedboats attacking Western oil tankers. This conflict has frustrated five American presidents, divided administrations, and repeatedly threatened to bring the two nations into open warfare. It is a story of shocking miscalculations, bitter debates, hidden casualties, boldness, and betrayal. A senior historian for the federal government with unparalleled access to senior officials and key documents of several U.S. administrations, Crist has spent more than ten years researching and writing The Twilight War, and he breaks new ground on virtually every page. Crist describes the series of secret negotiations between Iran and the United States after 9/11, culminating in Iran's proposal for a grand bargain for peace-which the Bush administration turned down. He documents the clandestine counterattack Iran launched after America's 2003 invasion of Iraq, in which thousands of soldiers disguised as reporters, tourists, pilgrims, and aid workers toiled to change the government in Baghdad and undercut American attempts to pacify the Iraqi insurgency. And he reveals in vivid detail for the first time a number of important stories of military and intelligence operations by both sides, both successes and failures, and their typically unexpected consequences. Much has changed in the world since 1979, but Iran and America remain each other's biggest national security nightmares. "The Iran problem" is a razor-sharp briar patch that has claimed its sixth presidential victim in Barack Obama and his administration. The Twilight War adds vital new depth to our understanding of this acute dilemma it is also a thrillingly engrossing read, animated by a healthy irony about human failings in the fog of not-quite war.
|Author||: Martin S. Navias,E. R. Hooton|
|Editor||: I.B. Tauris|
During the Iran-Iraq war, hundreds of merchant vessels were attacked, more than 400 seamen killed and millions of dollars' worth of damages were suffered by owners, charterers and insurers. In the most sustained assault on merchant shipping since the Second World War, the control of shipping routes, destruction of enemy and enemy-allied ships, and the protection of oil exports, were key objectives. These campaigns touched the economic and security interests of the Gulf states by threatening their exports and highlighting their political and military vulnerability. The ripples of the tanker wars extended well beyond the region with attacks on vessels with foreign flags which invoked international concern and drew in foreign naval forces.
|Author||: Nader Uskowi|
|Editor||: Rowman & Littlefield|
The story of Iran’s Revolutionary Guards and 200,000 Shia militias fighting to establish an arc of influence across the Middle East.
|Author||: Kenneth Pollack|
|Editor||: Simon and Schuster|
A foremost expert on Middle Eastern relations examines Iran's current nuclear potential while charting America's future course of action, recounting the prolonged clash between both nations to outline options for American policymakers. By the author of The Persian Puzzle.
|Author||: Kevin M. Woods,Institute for Defense Analyses|
These were Major General Mizher Rashid al-Tarfa al-Ubaydi, a senior officer and section leader in Iraq's military intelligence service dealing with Iran during the conflict; Major General (ret) Aladdin Hussein Makki Khamas, corps chief of staff, division commander, and director of Iraq's Combat Development Directorate during the war; Lieutenant General Abid Mohammed al-Kabi, commander-in-chief of the Iraqi Navy from 1982 to 1988; and Major General 'Alwan Hassoun 'Alwan al-Abousi, a squadron and wing commander during the conflict. As a result of these interviews, the Project 1946 team deepened and extended its understanding of a number of aspects and incidents during the period.
|Author||: Tom Cooper,Farzad Bishop|
|Editor||: Schiffer Publishing|
This book focuses on the role of the air power in the Iran-Iraq War of 1980-1988, one of the most underestimated and under researched events in the history of aerial warfare. The authors have made full use of extensive research, eyewitness accounts, interviews with dozens of people directly involved, as well as recently declassified documents from around the world which are published here for the first time. Their balanced, exhaustive coverage describes and analyzes both the development of the Iranian and the Iraqi air forces, their involvement in combat operations, while simultaneously discussing their organization and capabilities, and detailing their equipment to detail. Over 200 photographs (most never before published), tables, charts and maps are included, making this book a must for any serious military and aviation researcher, as well as enthusiasts and modelers. 200 colour & b/w photographs
|Author||: Yaakov Katz,Yoaz Hendel|
|Editor||: Potomac Books, Inc.|
Focuses on pivotal military events since the Second Lebanon War, including the Syrian reactor bombing; several assassinations of key Hezbollah, Iranian, and Syrian officials; and Operation Cast Lead in the Gaza Strip; Evaluates the threat to Israel's security posed by a nuclear Iran, and the military and diplomatic options for countering it; Based on extensive primary research and unprecedented access to key Israeli defense establishment figures
|Author||: Stephen C. Pelletiere|
This book is a major reinterpretation of the Iran-Iraq War and is a source for reexamining the U.S. involvement in the Gulf. Pelletiere demonstrates that the war was not a standoff in which Iraq finally won a grinding war of attrition through luck, persistence, and the use of poison gas. Instead, Iraq planned the last campaign almost two years prior to its unfolding. [The Iraqis] trained extensively and expended enormous sums of money to make their effort succeed. What won for them was their superior fignting prowess and greater commitment. Gas--if it was used at all--played only a minor part in the victory.' Pelletiere concludes that the key to understanding the war is the Extraordinary Congress of the Ba'th Party held in July 1986. It was there that the initial planning for the final campaign was done, and this campaign is what decided the fate of the conflict. The study centers around the last Iraqi campaign, which Pelletiere argues was based upon World War II blitzkrieg tactics, but he also treats the background, the politics, and the history of the conflict, and analyzes the significance of the war to the Middle East and to the position of the United States there.
|Author||: Ronen Bergman|
|Editor||: Simon and Schuster|
For twenty-six years, Iran has waged an international terrorist war while the intelligence services of the West, led by Mossad and the CIA, have waged a relentless, mostly clandestine counter-jihad in return. Though Iran has become a quietly looming threat, little has been revealed about this intelligence-based war. Now, Ronen Bergman, Israel’s leading reporter and analyst of intelligence affairs, has written a full account of this secret war. He connected the dots of the long history of Iranian backed terrorist attacks, and revealed for the first time many classified operations against the Iranian terrorist network, including details about collaborations between Israel’s Mossad and the CIA and FBI; thrilling Mossad operations, the successful recruitment of top insiders of Iranian intelligence, who have disclosed a wealth of information about Iran’s nuclear program as well as it’s terrorist activities; and the use of ultra-sophisticated surveillance equipment to penetrate and damage Iranian targets. From the Iranian proxy Hizbollah’s planning of terrorists attacks from apartments in New York City, to Iran’s training of an army of work Iraqi insurgents in the techniques of suicide bombing and the making of improvised explosive devises, he showed Iran has steadily waged war against the West.
|Author||: Farhang Rajaee|
"A comprehensive collection of original essays . . . by scholars and policy experts living in Iran, some of whom experienced the war firsthand. . . . A valuable book."--Hooshang Amirahmadi, Rutgers University "Contains considerable new information on the Iran-Iraq War and as such is a contribution to our understanding of this important conflict. The most original contribution of the [book], however, is the unique forum that it provides for documentation of a genuinely Iranian perspective on the war. There is no other book . . . that accomplishes this."--Mohiaddin Mesbahi, Florida International University This collection of original essays examines the difficult conclusion of the Iran-Iraq War and assesses the impact of the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait, the effect of UN Resolution 598 (1988), and the enduring effects of the war on both Iran and Iraq. Compiling the work of Iranian scholars educated in the West but living and working in Iran, the volume provides the only genuinely Iranian assessment available of the war and its aftermath. CONTENTS 1. Introduction: Views from Within, by Farhang Rajaee Part I: The Policy Dynamics 2. Taking Sides: Regional Powers and the War, by Saideh Lotfian 3. Neutral Statements, Committed Practice: The USSR and the War, by Kazem Sajjadpour 4. Collectively or Singly: Western Europe and the Iran-Iraq War, by Ahmad Naghibzadeh 5. Containment and Animosity: The United States and the War, by Reza Ra'iss Tousi 6. Double Standard: The Security Council and the Two Wars, by Bahram Mostaghimi and Masoud Taromsari Part II: Conceptual Dimensions 7. National, Ethnic, and Sectarian Issues in the Iran-Iraq War, by Neguin Yavari 8. Revolution, Ideology, and the War, by Hossein S. Seifzadeh 9. Facts and Allegations: Iraqi Disclaimer of the 1975 Treaty, by Jalil Roshandel 10. Decision-Making Inputs: Iraq's Premises before the War, by Mahmood Sariolghalam 11. Peace through Deception: The Iran-Iraq Correspondence, by Ali Asghar Kazemi Part III: Postwar Developments 12. The Implementation of UN Resolution 598, by Djamchid Momtaz 13. Iranian Foreign Policy in the Postwar Era, by Houchang Hassan-Yari 14. "Continual Aggression": Iraq's Decision to Invade Kuwait, by Daryoush Akhavan-Zanjani Farhang Rajaee is associate professor of international relations at Iran's National University in Tehran and editor of The Iran-Iraq War: The Politics of Aggression (UPF, 1993).