Stamped from the Beginning

Stamped from the Beginning
Author: Ibram X. Kendi
Pages: 592
ISBN: 9781568584645
Available:
Release: 2016-04-12
Editor: Bold Type Books
Language: en

Explanation of the Book:

The National Book Award winning history of how racist ideas were created, spread, and deeply rooted in American society. Some Americans insist that we're living in a post-racial society. But racist thought is not just alive and well in America -- it is more sophisticated and more insidious than ever. And as award-winning historian Ibram X. Kendi argues, racist ideas have a long and lingering history, one in which nearly every great American thinker is complicit. In this deeply researched and fast-moving narrative, Kendi chronicles the entire story of anti-black racist ideas and their staggering power over the course of American history. He uses the life stories of five major American intellectuals to drive this history: Puritan minister Cotton Mather, Thomas Jefferson, abolitionist William Lloyd Garrison, W.E.B. Du Bois, and legendary activist Angela Davis. As Kendi shows, racist ideas did not arise from ignorance or hatred. They were created to justify and rationalize deeply entrenched discriminatory policies and the nation's racial inequities. In shedding light on this history, Stamped from the Beginning offers us the tools we need to expose racist thinking. In the process, he gives us reason to hope.

Stamped from the Beginning

Stamped from the Beginning
Author: Ibram X. Kendi
Pages: 592
ISBN: 9781473549470
Available:
Release: 2017-07-06
Editor: Random House
Language: en

Explanation of the Book:

Stamped from the Beginning is a redefining history of anti-Black racist ideas that dramatically changes our understanding of the causes and extent of racist thinking itself. ** Winner of the US National Book Award** Its deeply researched and fast-moving narrative chronicles the journey of racist ideas from fifteenth-century Europe to present-day America through the lives of five major intellectuals – Puritan minister Cotton Mather, President Thomas Jefferson, fiery abolitionist William Lloyd Garrison, brilliant scholar W.E.B. Du Bois, and legendary anti-prison activist Angela Davis – showing how these ideas were developed, disseminated and eventually enshrined in American society. Contrary to popular conception, it reveals that racist ideas did not arise from ignorance or hatred. Instead, they were devised and honed by some of the most brilliant minds of each era, including anti-slavery and pro-civil rights advocates, who used their gifts and intelligence wittingly or otherwise to rationalize and justify existing racial disparities in everything from wealth to health. Seen in this piercing new light, racist ideas are shown to be the result, not the cause, of inequalities that stretch back over centuries, brought about ultimately through economic, political and cultural self-interest. Stamped from the Beginning offers compelling new answers to some of the most troubling questions of our time. In forcing us to reconsider our most basic assumptions about racism and also about ourselves, it leads us to a true understanding on which to build a real foundation for change.

Stamped from the Beginning

Stamped from the Beginning
Author: Ibram X. Kendi
Pages: 592
ISBN: 9781568584645
Available:
Release: 2016-04-12
Editor: Hachette UK
Language: en

Explanation of the Book:

The National Book Award winning history of how racist ideas were created, spread, and deeply rooted in American society. Some Americans insist that we're living in a post-racial society. But racist thought is not just alive and well in America -- it is more sophisticated and more insidious than ever. And as award-winning historian Ibram X. Kendi argues, racist ideas have a long and lingering history, one in which nearly every great American thinker is complicit. In this deeply researched and fast-moving narrative, Kendi chronicles the entire story of anti-black racist ideas and their staggering power over the course of American history. He uses the life stories of five major American intellectuals to drive this history: Puritan minister Cotton Mather, Thomas Jefferson, abolitionist William Lloyd Garrison, W.E.B. Du Bois, and legendary activist Angela Davis. As Kendi shows, racist ideas did not arise from ignorance or hatred. They were created to justify and rationalize deeply entrenched discriminatory policies and the nation's racial inequities. In shedding light on this history, Stamped from the Beginning offers us the tools we need to expose racist thinking. In the process, he gives us reason to hope.

Stamped from the Beginning

Stamped from the Beginning
Author: Ibram X. Kendi
Pages: 592
ISBN: 1568585985
Available:
Release: 2017-08-15
Editor: Nation Books
Language: en

Explanation of the Book:

Some Americans cling desperately to the myth that we are living in a post-racial society, that the election of the first black president spelled the doom of racism. In fact, racist thought is alive and well in America--more sophisticated and more insidious than ever. And as award-winning historian Ibram X. Kendi argues in Stamped from the Beginning, if we have any hope of grappling with this stark reality, we must first understand how racist ideas were developed, disseminated, and enshrined in American society. In this deeply researched and fast-moving narrative, Kendi chronicles the entire story of anti-black racist ideas and their staggering power over the course of American history. Stamped from the Beginning uses the life stories of five major American intellectuals to offer a window into the contentious debates between assimilationists and segregationists and between racists and antiracists. From Puritan minister Cotton Mather to Thomas Jefferson, from fiery abolitionist William Lloyd Garrison to brilliant scholar W.E.B. Du Bois to legendary anti-prison activist Angela Davis, Kendi shows how and why some of our leading pro-slavery and pro-civil rights thinkers have challenged or helped cement racist ideas in America. Contrary to popular conceptions, racist ideas did not arise from ignorance or hatred. Instead, they were devised and honed by some of the most brilliant minds of each era. These intellectuals used their brilliance to justify and rationalize deeply entrenched discriminatory policies and the nation's racial disparities in everything from wealth to health. And while racist ideas are easily produced and easily consumed, they can also be discredited. In shedding much-needed light on the murky history of racist ideas, Stamped from the Beginning offers us the tools we need to expose them--and in the process, gives us reason to hope.

Stamped Racism Antiracism and You

Stamped  Racism  Antiracism  and You
Author: Jason Reynolds,Ibram X. Kendi
Pages: 320
ISBN: 9780316453707
Available:
Release: 2020-03-10
Editor: Little, Brown Books for Young Readers
Language: en

Explanation of the Book:

The #1 New York Times bestselling, "must-read" (San Francisco Chronicle), "amazingly timely and stunningly accessible" (Jacqueline Woodson) exploration of race and racism from award-winning, beloved authors Jason Reynolds and Ibram X. Kendi, now in paperback. This is NOT a history book. This is a book about the here and now. A book to help us better understand why we are where we are. A book about race. The construct of race has always been used to gain and keep power, to create dynamics that separate and silence. This remarkable reimagining of Dr. Ibram X. Kendi's National Book Award-winning Stamped from the Beginning reveals the history of racist ideas in America, and inspires hope for an antiracist future. It takes you on a race journey from then to now, shows you why we feel how we feel, and why the poison of racism lingers. It also proves that while racist ideas have always been easy to fabricate and distribute, they can also be discredited. Through a gripping, fast-paced, and energizing narrative written by beloved award-winner Jason Reynolds, this book shines a light on the many insidious forms of racist ideas--and on ways readers can identify and stamp out racist thoughts in their daily lives. Download the free educator guide here: https://www.hachettebookgroup.com/wp-content/uploads/2020/03/Stamped-Educator-Guide.pdf

Bind Us Apart

Bind Us Apart
Author: Nicholas Guyatt
Pages: 416
ISBN: 9780465065615
Available:
Release: 2016-04-26
Editor: Basic Books
Language: en

Explanation of the Book:

Why did the Founding Fathers fail to include blacks and Indians in their cherished proposition that “all men are created equal”? Racism is the usual answer. Yet Nicholas Guyatt argues in Bind Us Apart that white liberals from the founding to the Civil War were not confident racists, but tortured reformers conscious of the damage that racism would do to the nation. Many tried to build a multiracial America in the early nineteenth century, but ultimately adopted the belief that non-whites should create their own republics elsewhere: in an Indian state in the West, or a colony for free blacks in Liberia. Herein lie the origins of “separate but equal.” Essential reading for anyone hoping to understand today's racial tensions, Bind Us Apart reveals why racial justice in the United States continues to be an elusive goal: despite our best efforts, we have never been able to imagine a fully inclusive, multiracial society.

How to Be an Antiracist

How to Be an Antiracist
Author: Ibram X. Kendi
Pages: 320
ISBN: 9780525509295
Available:
Release: 2019-08-13
Editor: One World
Language: en

Explanation of the Book:

#1 NEW YORK TIMES BESTSELLER • From the National Book Award–winning author of Stamped from the Beginning comes a “groundbreaking” (Time) approach to understanding and uprooting racism and inequality in our society—and in ourselves. “The most courageous book to date on the problem of race in the Western mind.”—The New York Times NAMED ONE OF THE BEST BOOKS OF THE YEAR BY The New York Times Book Review • Time • NPR • The Washington Post • Shelf Awareness • Library Journal • Publishers Weekly • Kirkus Reviews Antiracism is a transformative concept that reorients and reenergizes the conversation about racism—and, even more fundamentally, points us toward liberating new ways of thinking about ourselves and each other. At its core, racism is a powerful system that creates false hierarchies of human value; its warped logic extends beyond race, from the way we regard people of different ethnicities or skin colors to the way we treat people of different sexes, gender identities, and body types. Racism intersects with class and culture and geography and even changes the way we see and value ourselves. In How to Be an Antiracist, Kendi takes readers through a widening circle of antiracist ideas—from the most basic concepts to visionary possibilities—that will help readers see all forms of racism clearly, understand their poisonous consequences, and work to oppose them in our systems and in ourselves. Kendi weaves an electrifying combination of ethics, history, law, and science with his own personal story of awakening to antiracism. This is an essential work for anyone who wants to go beyond the awareness of racism to the next step: contributing to the formation of a just and equitable society. Praise for How to Be an Antiracist “Ibram X. Kendi’s new book, How to Be an Antiracist, couldn’t come at a better time. . . . Kendi has gifted us with a book that is not only an essential instruction manual but also a memoir of the author’s own path from anti-black racism to anti-white racism and, finally, to antiracism. . . . How to Be an Antiracist gives us a clear and compelling way to approach, as Kendi puts it in his introduction, ‘the basic struggle we’re all in, the struggle to be fully human and to see that others are fully human.’ ”—NPR “Kendi dissects why in a society where so few people consider themselves to be racist the divisions and inequalities of racism remain so prevalent. How to Be an Antiracist punctures the myths of a post-racial America, examining what racism really is—and what we should do about it.”—Time

Summary of Stamped from the Beginning by Ibram X Kendi

Summary of Stamped from the Beginning by Ibram X  Kendi
Author: Blinkread
Pages: 34
ISBN: 9798668287772
Available:
Release: 2020-07-21
Editor: Independently Published
Language: uk

Explanation of the Book:

DISCLAIMER: This is a book summary of Stamped frоm the Bеgіnnіng: Thе Definitive Hіѕtоrу оf Rасіѕt Idеаѕ іn Amеrіса bу Ibrаm X. Kendi and is not the original book. This bооk іѕ nоt mеаnt tо rерlасе thе оrіgіnаl bооk but tо ѕеrvе аѕ a companion tо іt.SYNOPSIS: Stаmреd frоm thе Bеgіnnіng (2016) offers a роwеrful еxаmіnаtіоn оf thе mоdеrn hіѕtоrу оf rасіѕm in thе Unіtеd Stаtеѕ, including whеrе rасіѕt ideas оrіgіnаtе аnd hоw thеу ѕрrеаd. In particular, the author lооkѕ closely аt hоw the рrеѕіdеntіаl саmраіgnѕ аnd аdmіnіѕtrаtіоnѕ оf Rісhаrd Nіxоn, Ronald Rеаgаn аnd Bіll Clіntоn hаvе hеlреd propagate racist thоught and hаd a dеtrіmеntаl impact оn Amеrіса'ѕ black соmmunіtіеѕ. ABOUT THЕ AUTHОR: Ibrаm X. Kendi is аѕѕіѕtаnt professor оf African-American hіѕtоrу аt thе Unіvеrѕіtу of Flоrіdа. Hе іѕ аlѕо thе аuthоr оf the аwаrd-wіnnіng bооk, Thе Blасk Cаmрuѕ Movement: Black Studеntѕ аnd the Racial Rесоnѕtіtutіоn оf Hіghеr Education, 1965-72.

Antiracist Baby

Antiracist Baby
Author: Ibram X. Kendi
Pages: 24
ISBN: 9780593110423
Available:
Release: 2020-06-16
Editor: Penguin
Language: en

Explanation of the Book:

A #1 New York Times Bestseller! Featured in its own episode in the Netflix original show Bookmarks: Celebrating Black Voices! Featured on Good Morning America, NPR's Morning Edition, CBS This Morning, and more! From the National Book Award-winning author of Stamped from the Beginning and How to Be an Antiracist comes a fresh new board book that empowers parents and children to uproot racism in our society and in ourselves. Take your first steps with Antiracist Baby! Or rather, follow Antiracist Baby's nine easy steps for building a more equitable world. With bold art and thoughtful yet playful text, Antiracist Baby introduces the youngest readers and the grown-ups in their lives to the concept and power of antiracism. Providing the language necessary to begin critical conversations at the earliest age, Antiracist Baby is the perfect gift for readers of all ages dedicated to forming a just society.

Study Guide

Study Guide
Author: Supersummary
Pages: 166
ISBN: 1692115332
Available:
Release: 2019-09-09
Editor: Unknown
Language: en

Explanation of the Book:

SuperSummary, a modern alternative to SparkNotes and CliffsNotes, offers high-quality study guides for challenging works of literature. This 164-page guide for "Stamped From the Beginning" by Ibram X. Kendi includes detailed chapter summaries and analysis covering 37 chapters, as well as several more in-depth sections of expert-written literary analysis. Featured content includes commentary on major characters, 25 important quotes, essay topics, and key themes like The Intersection of Racism and Science and Segregationism, Assimilationism, and Antiracism.

Stamped For Kids

Stamped  For Kids
Author: Jason Reynolds,Ibram X. Kendi
Pages: 160
ISBN: 9780316167383
Available:
Release: 2021-05-11
Editor: Hachette UK
Language: en

Explanation of the Book:

The #1 New York Times bestseller! This chapter book edition of the #1 New York Times bestseller by luminaries Ibram X. Kendi and Jason Reynolds is an essential introduction to the history of racism and antiracism in America RACE. Uh-oh. The R-word. But actually talking about race is one of the most important things to learn how to do. Adapted from the groundbreaking bestseller Stamped: Racism, Antiracism, and You, this book takes readers on a journey from present to past and back again. Kids will discover where racist ideas came from, identify how they impact America today, and meet those who have fought racism with antiracism. Along the way, they’ll learn how to identify and stamp out racist thoughts in their own lives. Ibram X. Kendi’s research, Jason Reynolds’s and Sonja Cherry-Paul’s writing, and Rachelle Baker’s art come together in this vital read, enhanced with a glossary, timeline, and more.

The Black Campus Movement

The Black Campus Movement
Author: I. Rogers
Pages: 235
ISBN: 9781137016508
Available:
Release: 2012-03-12
Editor: Springer
Language: en

Explanation of the Book:

This book provides the first national study of this intense and challenging struggle which disrupted and refashioned institutions in almost every state. It also illuminates the context for one of the most transformative educational movements in American history through a history of black higher education and black student activism before 1965.

Waiting Til the Midnight Hour

Waiting  Til the Midnight Hour
Author: Peniel E. Joseph
Pages: 416
ISBN: 9781466837614
Available:
Release: 2007-07-10
Editor: Henry Holt and Company
Language: en

Explanation of the Book:

A gripping narrative that brings to life a legendary moment in American history: the birth, life, and death of the Black Power movement With the rallying cry of "Black Power!" in 1966, a group of black activists, including Stokely Carmichael and Huey P. Newton, turned their backs on Martin Luther King's pacifism and, building on Malcolm X's legacy, pioneered a radical new approach to the fight for equality. Waiting 'Til the Midnight Hour is a history of the Black Power movement, that storied group of men and women who would become American icons of the struggle for racial equality. Peniel E. Joseph traces the history of the men and women of the movement—many of them famous or infamous, others forgotten. Waiting 'Til the Midnight Hour begins in Harlem in the 1950s, where, despite the Cold War's hostile climate, black writers, artists, and activists built a new urban militancy that was the movement's earliest incarnation. In a series of character-driven chapters, we witness the rise of Black Power groups such as the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee and the Black Panthers, and with them, on both coasts of the country, a fundamental change in the way Americans understood the unfinished business of racial equality and integration. Drawing on original archival research and more than sixty original oral histories, this narrative history vividly invokes the way in which Black Power redefined black identity and culture and in the process redrew the landscape of American race relations.

Who s Afraid of Post Blackness

Who s Afraid of Post Blackness
Author: Touré
Pages: 251
ISBN: 9781439177556
Available:
Release: 2011-09-13
Editor: Simon and Schuster
Language: en

Explanation of the Book:

Drawing on his own experience, as well as interviews with more than 100 black Americans--including Henry Louis Gates Jr., Malcolm Gladwell, Chuck D, Soledad O-Brien, the Reverend Jesse Jackson, Aaron McGruder and more--the author explores what it means to be black in a post-2008 United States. By the author of Never Drank the Kool-Aid

Born to Fly

Born to Fly
Author: Steve Sheinkin
Pages: 208
ISBN: 9781626721319
Available:
Release: 2019-09-24
Editor: Roaring Brook Press
Language: en

Explanation of the Book:

Born to Fly is the gripping story of the fearless women pilots who aimed for the skies—and beyond. Just nine years after American women finally got the right to vote, a group of trailblazers soared to new heights in the 1929 Air Derby, the first women's air race across the U.S. Follow the incredible lives of legend Amelia Earhart, who has captivated generations; Marvel Crosson, who built a plane before she even learned how to fly; Louise Thaden, who shattered jaw-dropping altitude records; and Elinor Smith, who at age seventeen made headlines when she flew under the Brooklyn Bridge. These awe-inspiring stories culminate in a suspenseful, nail-biting rate across the country that brings to life the glory and grit of the dangerous and thrilling early days of flying, expertly told by the master of nonfiction history for young readers, National Book Award finalist Steve Sheinkin. Featuring illustrations by Bijou Karman.

Stokely

Stokely
Author: Peniel E. Joseph,E Joseph
Pages: 424
ISBN: 9780465080489
Available:
Release: 2014-03-04
Editor: Basic Books
Language: en

Explanation of the Book:

Stokely Carmichael, the charismatic and controversial black activist, stepped onto the pages of history when he called for "Black Power” during a speech one Mississippi night in 1966. A firebrand who straddled both the American civil rights and Black Power movements, Carmichael would stand for the rest of his life at the center of the storm he had unleashed that night. In Stokely, preeminent civil rights scholar Peniel E. Joseph presents a groundbreaking biography of Carmichael, using his life as a prism through which to view the transformative African American freedom struggles of the twentieth century. During the heroic early years of the civil rights movement, Carmichael and other civil rights activists advocated nonviolent measures, leading sit-ins, demonstrations, and voter registration efforts in the South that culminated with the passage of the Voting Rights Act in 1965. Still, Carmichael chafed at the slow progress of the civil rights movement and responded with Black Power, a movement that urged blacks to turn the rhetoric of freedom into a reality through whatever means necessary. Marked by the assassinations of Malcolm X and Martin Luther King, Jr., a wave of urban race riots, and the rise of the anti-war movement, the late 1960s heralded a dramatic shift in the tone of civil rights. Carmichael became the revolutionary icon for this new racial and political landscape, helping to organize the original Black Panther Party in Alabama and joining the iconic Black Panther Party for Self Defense that would galvanize frustrated African Americans and ignite a backlash among white Americans and the mainstream media. Yet at the age of twenty-seven, Carmichael made the abrupt decision to leave the United States, embracing a pan-African ideology and adopting the name of Kwame Ture, a move that baffled his supporters and made him something of an enigma until his death in 1998. A nuanced and authoritative portrait, Stokely captures the life of the man whose uncompromising vision defined political radicalism and provoked a national reckoning on race and democracy.

Ida A Sword Among Lions

Ida  A Sword Among Lions
Author: Paula J. Giddings
Pages: 832
ISBN: 0061972940
Available:
Release: 2009-10-06
Editor: Harper Collins
Language: en

Explanation of the Book:

In the tradition of towering biographies that tell us as much about America as they do about their subject, Ida: A Sword Among Lions is a sweepingnarrative about a country and a crusader embroiled in the struggle against lynching: a practice that imperiled not only the lives of blackmen and women, but also a nation based on law and riven by race. At the center of the national drama is Ida B. Wells (1862-1931), born to slaves in Mississippi, who began her activist career by refusing to leave a first-class ladies’ car on a Memphis railway and rose to lead the nation’s firstcampaign against lynching. For Wells the key to the rise in violence was embedded in attitudes not only about black men but about women and sexuality as well. Her independent perspective and percussive personality gained her encomiums as a hero -- as well as aspersions on her character and threats of death. Exiled from the South by 1892, Wells subsequently took her campaign across the country and throughout the British Isles before she married and settled in Chicago, where she continued her activism as a journalist, suffragist, and independent candidate in the rough-and-tumble world of the Windy City’s politics. In this eagerly awaited biography by Paula J. Giddings, author of the groundbreaking book When and Where I Enter, which traced the activisthistory of black women in America, the irrepressible personality of Ida B. Wells surges out of the pages. With meticulous research and vivid rendering of her subject, Giddings also provides compelling portraits of twentieth-century progressive luminaries, black and white, with whom Wells worked during some of the most tumultuous periods in American history. Embattled all of her activist life, Wells found herself fighting not only conservative adversaries but icons of the civil rights and women’s suffrage movements who sought to undermine her place in history. In this definitive biography, which places Ida B. Wells firmly in the context of her times as well as ours, Giddings at long last gives this visionary reformer her due and, in the process, sheds light on an aspect of our history that isoften left in the shadows.

Be Antiracist

Be Antiracist
Author: Ibram X. Kendi
Pages: 192
ISBN: 9780593233009
Available:
Release: 2020-10-06
Editor: One World/Ballantine
Language: en

Explanation of the Book:

Reflect on your understanding of race and discover ways to work toward an antiracist future with this guided journal from the #1 New York Times bestselling author of How to Be an Antiracist and Stamped from the Beginning. Antiracism is not a destination but a journey--one that takes deliberate, consistent work. Ibram X. Kendi's concept of antiracism has reenergized and reshaped the conversation about racial justice in America and pointed us toward new ways of thinking about ourselves and our society. Whether or not you've read How to Be an Antiracist, this stunning paperback journal offers the opportunity to reflect on your personal commitment to antiracism. Be Antiracist is both a confessional and a log of your journey toward a more equitable and just society. Be Antiracist helps you reflect on topics such as body, power, class, gender, and policy, as well as specific questions like, "Who or what scares you the most when you think about race?" and "How can we go about disconnecting Blackness from criminality?" and "What constitutes an American to you?" Kendi's multipronged approach to self-reflection will challenge you to make change in yourself and your community, and contribute to an antiracist future.

Why Are All the Black Kids Sitting Together in the Cafeteria

Why Are All the Black Kids Sitting Together in the Cafeteria
Author: Beverly Daniel Tatum
Pages: 464
ISBN: 9781541616585
Available:
Release: 2017-09-05
Editor: Basic Books
Language: en

Explanation of the Book:

The classic, bestselling book on the psychology of racism -- now fully revised and updated Walk into any racially mixed high school and you will see Black, White, and Latino youth clustered in their own groups. Is this self-segregation a problem to address or a coping strategy? Beverly Daniel Tatum, a renowned authority on the psychology of racism, argues that straight talk about our racial identities is essential if we are serious about enabling communication across racial and ethnic divides. These topics have only become more urgent as the national conversation about race is increasingly acrimonious. This fully revised edition is essential reading for anyone seeking to understand the dynamics of race in America.

We are an African People

We are an African People
Author: Russell John Rickford
Pages: 368
ISBN: 9780199861477
Available:
Release: 2016
Editor: Oxford University Press
Language: en

Explanation of the Book:

By 1970, more than 60 "Pan African nationalist" schools, from preschools to post-secondary ventures, had appeared in urban settings across the United States. The small, independent enterprises were often accused of teaching hate and were routinely harassed by authorities. Yet theseinstitutions served as critical mechanisms for transmitting black consciousness. Founded by activist-intellectuals, the schools strove not simply to bolster the academic skills and self-esteem of inner-city African-American youth but also to decolonize minds and embody the principles ofself-determination and African identity. In We Are An African People, historian Russell Rickford traces the brief lives of these autonomous black institutions created to claim some of the self-determination that the integrationist civil rights movement had failed to provide. Influenced by Third World theorists and anticolonial movements,organizers of the schools saw formal education as a means of creating a vanguard of young activists devoted to the struggle for black political sovereignty throughout the world. Most of the schools were short-lived, but their stories have much to tell us about Pan Africanism as a social andintellectual movement and as a key part of an indigenous black nationalism.A former journalist, Rickford uses a virtually unknown movement to explore black nationhood and a particularly fertile period of political, cultural, and social revitalization that envisioned an alternate society.