The Threat of Pandemic Influenza

The Threat of Pandemic Influenza
Author: Institute of Medicine,Board on Global Health,Forum on Microbial Threats
Pages: 430
ISBN: 9780309095044
Available:
Release: 2005-04-09
Editor: National Academies Press
Language: en

Explanation of the Book:

Public health officials and organizations around the world remain on high alert because of increasing concerns about the prospect of an influenza pandemic, which many experts believe to be inevitable. Moreover, recent problems with the availability and strain-specificity of vaccine for annual flu epidemics in some countries and the rise of pandemic strains of avian flu in disparate geographic regions have alarmed experts about the world's ability to prevent or contain a human pandemic. The workshop summary, The Threat of Pandemic Influenza: Are We Ready? addresses these urgent concerns. The report describes what steps the United States and other countries have taken thus far to prepare for the next outbreak of "killer flu." It also looks at gaps in readiness, including hospitals' inability to absorb a surge of patients and many nations' incapacity to monitor and detect flu outbreaks. The report points to the need for international agreements to share flu vaccine and antiviral stockpiles to ensure that the 88 percent of nations that cannot manufacture or stockpile these products have access to them. It chronicles the toll of the H5N1 strain of avian flu currently circulating among poultry in many parts of Asia, which now accounts for the culling of millions of birds and the death of at least 50 persons. And it compares the costs of preparations with the costs of illness and death that could arise during an outbreak.

The Threat of Pandemic Influenza

The Threat of Pandemic Influenza
Author: Institute of Medicine,Board on Global Health,Forum on Microbial Threats
Pages: 430
ISBN: 0309165504
Available:
Release: 2005-03-09
Editor: National Academies Press
Language: en

Explanation of the Book:

Public health officials and organizations around the world remain on high alert because of increasing concerns about the prospect of an influenza pandemic, which many experts believe to be inevitable. Moreover, recent problems with the availability and strain-specificity of vaccine for annual flu epidemics in some countries and the rise of pandemic strains of avian flu in disparate geographic regions have alarmed experts about the world's ability to prevent or contain a human pandemic. The workshop summary, The Threat of Pandemic Influenza: Are We Ready? addresses these urgent concerns. The report describes what steps the United States and other countries have taken thus far to prepare for the next outbreak of "killer flu." It also looks at gaps in readiness, including hospitals' inability to absorb a surge of patients and many nations' incapacity to monitor and detect flu outbreaks. The report points to the need for international agreements to share flu vaccine and antiviral stockpiles to ensure that the 88 percent of nations that cannot manufacture or stockpile these products have access to them. It chronicles the toll of the H5N1 strain of avian flu currently circulating among poultry in many parts of Asia, which now accounts for the culling of millions of birds and the death of at least 50 persons. And it compares the costs of preparations with the costs of illness and death that could arise during an outbreak.

Pandemic Influenza Preparedness and Response

Pandemic Influenza Preparedness and Response
Author: Anonim
Pages: 58
ISBN: 9789241547680
Available:
Release: 2009
Editor: World Health Organization
Language: en

Explanation of the Book:

"Influenza pandemics are unpredictable but recurring events that can have severe consequences on societies worldwide. This revised WHO guidance publication on pandemic influenza preparedness and response acknowledges that pandemic preparedness is centered around health sectors planning but must also be broader. WHO therefore advocates a "whole-of-society" approach to sustainable and ethical pandemic preparedness while focusing in more detail on the role of the health sector. The roles of WHO and national governments are outlined to create a better understanding of how health and non-health sectors, both public and private, all contribute to pandemic preparedness"--Publisher's description.

Global Health and the Future Role of the United States

Global Health and the Future Role of the United States
Author: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine,Health and Medicine Division,Board on Global Health,Committee on Global Health and the Future of the United States
Pages: 384
ISBN: 9780309457668
Available:
Release: 2017-09-05
Editor: National Academies Press
Language: en

Explanation of the Book:

While much progress has been made on achieving the Millenium Development Goals over the last decade, the number and complexity of global health challenges has persisted. Growing forces for globalization have increased the interconnectedness of the world and our interdependency on other countries, economies, and cultures. Monumental growth in international travel and trade have brought improved access to goods and services for many, but also carry ongoing and ever-present threats of zoonotic spillover and infectious disease outbreaks that threaten all. Global Health and the Future Role of the United States identifies global health priorities in light of current and emerging world threats. This report assesses the current global health landscape and how challenges, actions, and players have evolved over the last decade across a wide range of issues, and provides recommendations on how to increase responsiveness, coordination, and efficiency â€" both within the U.S. government and across the global health field.

National Strategy for Pandemic Influenza

National Strategy for Pandemic Influenza
Author: Homeland Security Council (U.S.)
Pages: 242
ISBN: 1588088898
Available:
Release: 2006-01
Editor: International Medical Pub
Language: en

Explanation of the Book:

This Implementation Plan clarifies the roles and responsibilities of governmental and non-governmental entities, including Federal, State, local, and tribal authorities and regional, national, and international stakeholders, and provides preparedness guidance for all segments of society.--Preface.

The Influenza Threat

The Influenza Threat
Author: Scientific American Editors
Pages: 50
ISBN: 9781466833838
Available:
Release: 2013-01-21
Editor: Scientific American
Language: en

Explanation of the Book:

The Influenza Threat: Pandemic in the Making by the editors of Scientific American The onset of cold weather brings out the boots, coats, gloves – and the block-lettered, stoplight-red "Flu Shots Available Here" signs in drugstore windows. And with good reason. For many scientists and public health specialists alike, flu season has become a little like Russian Roulette. The likelihood of a deadly pandemic outbreak of influenza is not far from reality considering the nature of some of the different viral strains. In this eBook, we delve into the science of the flu, starting with past pandemics and what we can learn from them. The book opens with a story on how scientists were able to analyze the viral strain that caused the 1918 pandemic, known as the "Spanish flu," which was so shocking in symptoms and virulence that physicians first thought they were dealing with a new infection. The next sections examine the sources, transmission and surveillance of the virus, including how and why zoonoses – infectious diseases that originate from animals – are vaulting to the top of health officials' risk lists. A universal vaccine is the Holy Grail of defense against the quickly mutating virus, and two expert interviews discuss the ongoing quest. However, with research comes controversy. Recent studies into the dreaded bird flu, or H5N1, raised serious questions about access to information versus the threat of bioterrorism. Is it possible to practice both good science, which thrives on the free flow of information, and good defense, which thrives on the opposite? While there are no definitive answers to this and other issues, these pages analyze the science behind the controversy, providing an essential resource to understanding this potentially deadly virus.

Exploring Lessons Learned from a Century of Outbreaks

Exploring Lessons Learned from a Century of Outbreaks
Author: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine,Health and Medicine Division,Board on Global Health,Forum on Microbial Threats
Pages: 230
ISBN: 9780309490320
Available:
Release: 2019-07-05
Editor: National Academies Press
Language: en

Explanation of the Book:

In November 2018, an ad hoc planning committee at the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine planned two sister workshops held in Washington, DC, to examine the lessons from influenza pandemics and other major outbreaks, understand the extent to which the lessons have been learned, and discuss how they could be applied further to ensure that countries are sufficiently ready for future pandemics. This publication summarizes the presentations and discussions from both workshops.

Disease Control Priorities Third Edition

Disease Control Priorities  Third Edition
Author: Hellen Gelband,Susan Horton,Prabhat Jha,Ramanan Laxminarayan,Charles N. Mock,Rachel Nugent
Pages: 426
ISBN: 146480527X
Available:
Release: 2017-12-06
Editor: Disease Control Priorities
Language: en

Explanation of the Book:

Annotation This volume discusses health system policies (including financing global health, quality of care, and strengthening regulatory systems in low- and middle-income countries), as well as the methods and resources used throughout all DCP3 volumes.

Flu

Flu
Author: Gina Kolata
Pages: 330
ISBN: 9781429979351
Available:
Release: 2011-04-01
Editor: Farrar, Straus and Giroux
Language: en

Explanation of the Book:

The fascinating, true story of the world's deadliest disease. In 1918, the Great Flu Epidemic felled the young and healthy virtually overnight. An estimated forty million people died as the epidemic raged. Children were left orphaned and families were devastated. As many American soldiers were killed by the 1918 flu as were killed in battle during World War I. And no area of the globe was safe. Eskimos living in remote outposts in the frozen tundra were sickened and killed by the flu in such numbers that entire villages were wiped out. Scientists have recently rediscovered shards of the flu virus frozen in Alaska and preserved in scraps of tissue in a government warehouse. Gina Kolata, an acclaimed reporter for The New York Times, unravels the mystery of this lethal virus with the high drama of a great adventure story. Delving into the history of the flu and previous epidemics, detailing the science and the latest understanding of this mortal disease, Kolata addresses the prospects for a great epidemic recurring, and, most important, what can be done to prevent it.

Ethical and Legal Considerations in Mitigating Pandemic Disease

Ethical and Legal Considerations in Mitigating Pandemic Disease
Author: Institute of Medicine,Board on Global Health,Forum on Microbial Threats
Pages: 250
ISBN: 9780309107693
Available:
Release: 2007-07-08
Editor: National Academies Press
Language: en

Explanation of the Book:

In recent public workshops and working group meetings, the Forum on Microbial Threats of the Institute of Medicine (IOM) has examined a variety of infectious disease outbreaks with pandemic potential, including those caused by influenza (IOM, 2005) and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) (IOM, 2004). Particular attention has been paid to the potential pandemic threat posed by the H5N1 strain of avian influenza, which is now endemic in many Southeast Asian bird populations. Since 2003, the H5N1 subtype of avian influenza has caused 185 confirmed human deaths in 11 countries, including some cases of viral transmission from human to human (WHO, 2007). But as worrisome as these developments are, at least they are caused by known pathogens. The next pandemic could well be caused by the emergence of a microbe that is still unknown, much as happened in the 1980s with the emergence of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and in 2003 with the appearance of the SARS coronavirus. Previous Forum meetings on pandemic disease have discussed the scientific and logistical challenges associated with pandemic disease recognition, identification, and response. Participants in these earlier meetings also recognized the difficulty of implementing disease control strategies effectively. Ethical and Legal Considerations in Mitigating Pandemic Disease: Workshop Summary as a factual summary of what occurred at the workshop.

The Threat of Pandemic Influenza

The Threat of Pandemic Influenza
Author: Anonim
Pages: 411
ISBN: 0309546877
Available:
Release: 2005-01-01
Editor: National Academy Press
Language: en

Explanation of the Book:

The Institute of Medicine's Forum on Microbial Threats hosted a public workshop on June 16 and 17, 2004. Through invited presentations and discussions among participants, the workshop informed the Forum, the public and policy makers of the likelihood of an influenza pandemic and ecxplored issues critical to the preparation and protection of the global community.

The Neglected Dimension of Global Security

The Neglected Dimension of Global Security
Author: National Academy of Medicine, Secretariat,Commission on a Global Health Risk Framework for the Future
Pages: 142
ISBN: 9780309390965
Available:
Release: 2016-05-16
Editor: National Academies Press
Language: en

Explanation of the Book:

Since the 2014 Ebola outbreak many public- and private-sector leaders have seen a need for improved management of global public health emergencies. The effects of the Ebola epidemic go well beyond the three hardest-hit countries and beyond the health sector. Education, child protection, commerce, transportation, and human rights have all suffered. The consequences and lethality of Ebola have increased interest in coordinated global response to infectious threats, many of which could disrupt global health and commerce far more than the recent outbreak. In order to explore the potential for improving international management and response to outbreaks the National Academy of Medicine agreed to manage an international, independent, evidence-based, authoritative, multistakeholder expert commission. As part of this effort, the Institute of Medicine convened four workshops in summer of 2015. This commission report considers the evidence supplied by these workshops and offers conclusions and actionable recommendations to guide policy makers, international funders, civil society organizations, and the private sector.

Influenza and Public Health

Influenza and Public Health
Author: Jennifer Lee Gunn
Pages: 293
ISBN: 9781849776448
Available:
Release: 2010
Editor: Earthscan
Language: en

Explanation of the Book:

Major influenza pandemics pose a constant threat. As evidenced by recent H5N1 avian flu and novel H1N1, influenza outbreaks can come in close succession, yet differ in their transmission and impact. With accelerated levels of commercial and population mobility, new forms of flu virus can also spread across the globe with unprecedented speed. Responding quickly and adequately to each outbreak becomes imperative on the part of governments and global public health organizations, but the difficulties of doing so are legion. One tool for pandemic planning is analysis of responses to past pandemics that provide insight into productive ways forward.This book investigates past influenza pandemics in light of today's, so as to afford critical insights into possible transmission patterns, experiences, mistakes, and interventions. It explores several pandemics over the past century, from the infamous 1918 Spanish Influenza, the avian flu epidemic of 2003, and the novel H1N1 pandemic of 2009, to lesser-known outbreaks such as the 1889-90 influenza pandemic and the Hong Kong Flu of 1968. Contributors to the volume examine cases from a wide range of disciplines, including history, sociology, epidemiology, virology, geography, and public health, identifying patterns that cut across pandemics in order to guide contemporary responses to infectious outbreaks.

Pandemic Influenza

Pandemic Influenza
Author: Jeffrey R. Ryan
Pages: 280
ISBN: 1420060880
Available:
Release: 2008-08-01
Editor: CRC Press
Language: en

Explanation of the Book:

The swine flu emergency needn’t become a crisis. This critically acclaimed work provides public health officials, doctors, responders, and emergency planners with accurate current information that will help them understand the nature of an outbreak, assess risk, answer public concerns, and develop informed strategies. Devoid of sensationalism and agenda, this CRC Press resource provides all the information needed to understand pandemic influenzas including, avian, swine, and human variations and outlines the steps needed to develop and implement prevention, stabilization, and recovery efforts as needed at the local level. "... an amazing resource ... Dr. Ryan has assembled some of the best experts in the field to guide you in understanding the threat of pandemic influenza and how it can affect you and the people you are responsible for. ..." --From the foreword by Lynn A. Slepski, Captain, United States Public Health Service Make certain your response to Swine Flu is proactive and informed Edited by Jeffrey Ryan, Institute for Emergency Preparedness, this volume — Arms planners and responders with guidance from 13 leading experts Takes lessons from past pandemics Covers biological and clinical aspects of influenza Discusses pharmaceutical and non-pharmaceutical measures Details response actions related to communication, travel, and quarantine While the swine flu outbreak has impacted Mexico; influenza has no respect for boundaries and is already being felt up north. Despite warnings from the World Health Organization, our preparedness continues to lag. Part of the problem is that the real action must occur at the local level. Triage, care, and containment, along with maintenance of infrastructure, are functions that must be carried out by local planners and responders. The first section reviews the history of pandemics. The middle chapters examine the biology of a virus and clinical aspects of influenza. The final chapters examine international and federal programs and discuss response at the local level, including service continuation planning and fatality management.

Microbial Threats to Health

Microbial Threats to Health
Author: Anonim
Pages: 329
ISBN: OCLC:817895681
Available:
Release: 2005
Editor: Unknown
Language: en

Explanation of the Book:

Epidemics and Society

Epidemics and Society
Author: Frank M. Snowden
Pages: 512
ISBN: 9780300249149
Available:
Release: 2019-10-22
Editor: Yale University Press
Language: en

Explanation of the Book:

A wide-ranging study that illuminates the connection between epidemic diseases and societal change, from the Black Death to Ebola This sweeping exploration of the impact of epidemic diseases looks at how mass infectious outbreaks have shaped society, from the Black Death to today. In a clear and accessible style, Frank M. Snowden reveals the ways that diseases have not only influenced medical science and public health, but also transformed the arts, religion, intellectual history, and warfare. A multidisciplinary and comparative investigation of the medical and social history of the major epidemics, this volume touches on themes such as the evolution of medical therapy, plague literature, poverty, the environment, and mass hysteria. In addition to providing historical perspective on diseases such as smallpox, cholera, and tuberculosis, Snowden examines the fallout from recent epidemics such as HIV/AIDS, SARS, and Ebola and the question of the world’s preparedness for the next generation of diseases.

The Great Influenza

The Great Influenza
Author: John M. Barry
Pages: 546
ISBN: 0143036491
Available:
Release: 2005
Editor: Penguin
Language: en

Explanation of the Book:

An account of the deadly influenza epidemic of 1918, which took the lives of millions of people around the world, examines its causes, its impact on early twentieth-century society, and the lasting implications of the crisis.

Preparing for an Influenza Pandemic

Preparing for an Influenza Pandemic
Author: Institute of Medicine,Board on Health Sciences Policy,Committee on Personal Protective Equipment for Healthcare Workers During an Influenza Pandemic
Pages: 206
ISBN: 0309177944
Available:
Release: 2007-11-28
Editor: National Academies Press
Language: en

Explanation of the Book:

During an influenza pandemic, healthcare workers will be on the front lines delivering care to patients and preventing further spread of the disease. As the nation prepares for pandemic influenza, multiple avenues for protecting the health of the public are being carefully considered, ranging from rapid development of appropriate vaccines to quarantine plans should the need arise for their implementation. One vital aspect of pandemic influenza planning is the use of personal protective equipment (PPE)-the respirators, gowns, gloves, face shields, eye protection, and other equipment that will be used by healthcare workers and others in their day-to-day patient care responsibilities. However, efforts to appropriately protect healthcare workers from illness or from infecting their families and their patients are greatly hindered by the paucity of data on the transmission of influenza and the challenges associated with training and equipping healthcare workers with effective personal protective equipment. Due to this lack of knowledge on influenza transmission, it is not possible at the present time to definitively inform healthcare workers about what PPE is critical and what level of protection this equipment will provide in a pandemic. The outbreaks of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in 2003 have underscored the importance of protecting healthcare workers from infectious agents. The surge capacity that will be required to reduce mortality from a pandemic cannot be met if healthcare workers are themselves ill or are absent due to concerns about PPE efficacy. The IOM committee determined that there is an urgent need to address the lack of preparedness regarding effective PPE for use in an influenza pandemic. Preparing for an Influenza Pandemic : Personal Protective Equipment for Healthcare Workers identifies that require expeditious research and policy action: (1) Influenza transmission research should become an immediate and short-term research priority so that effective prevention and control strategies can be developed and refined. The current paucity of knowledge significantly hinders prevention efforts. (2) Employer and employee commitment to worker safety and appropriate use of PPE should be strengthened. Healthcare facilities should establish and promote a culture of safety. (3) An integrated effort is needed to understand the PPE requirements of the worker and to develop and utilize innovative materials and technologies to create the next generation of PPE capable of meeting these needs.

Reusability of Facemasks During an Influenza Pandemic

Reusability of Facemasks During an Influenza Pandemic
Author: Institute of Medicine,Board on Health Sciences Policy,Committee on the Development of Reusable Facemasks for Use During an Influenza Pandemic
Pages: 106
ISBN: 9780309101820
Available:
Release: 2006-08-24
Editor: National Academies Press
Language: en

Explanation of the Book:

Any strategy to cope with an influenza pandemic must be based on the knowledge and tools that are available at the time an epidemic may occur. In the near term, when we lack an adequate supply of vaccine and antiviral medication, strategies that rely on social distancing and physical barriers will be relatively more prominent as means to prevent spread of disease. The use of respirators and facemasks is one key part of a larger strategy to establish barriers and increase distance between infected and uninfected individuals. Respirators and facemasks may have a role in both clinical care and community settings. Reusability of Facemasks During an Influenza Pandemic: Facing the Flu answers a specific question about the role of respirators and facemasks to reduce the spread of flu: Can respirators and facemasks that are designed to be disposable be reused safely and effectively? The committee-assisted by outstanding staff-worked intensively to review the pertinent literature; consult with manufacturers, researchers, and medical specialists; and apply their expert judgment. This report offers findings and recommendations based on the evidence, pointing to actions that are appropriate now and to lines of research that can better inform future decisions.

The Oxford Handbook of Global Health Politics

The Oxford Handbook of Global Health Politics
Author: Colin McInnes,Kelley Lee,Jeremy Youde
Pages: 752
ISBN: 9780190456818
Available:
Release: 2020
Editor: Oxford University Press, USA
Language: en

Explanation of the Book:

Protecting and promoting health is inherently a political endeavor that requires a sophisticated understanding of the distribution and use of power. Yet while the global nature of health is widely recognized, its political nature is less well understood. In recent decades, the interdisciplinary field of global health politics has emerged to demonstrate the interconnections of health and core political topics, including foreign and security policy, trade, economics, and development. Today a growing body of scholarship examines how the global health landscape has both shaped and been shaped by political actors and structures. The Oxford Handbook of Global Health Politics provides an authoritative overview and assessment of research on this important and complicated subject. The volume is motivated by two arguments. First, health is not simply a technical subject, requiring evidence-based solutions to real-world problems, but an arena of political contestation where norms, values, and interests also compete and collide. Second, globalization has fundamentally changed the nature of health politics in terms of the ideas, interests, and institutions involved. The volume comprises more than 30 chapters by leading experts in global health and politics. Each chaper provides an overview of the state of the art on a given theoretical perspective, major actor, or global health issue. The Handbook offers both an excellent introduction to scholars new to the field and also an invaluable teaching and research resource for experts seeking to understand global health politics and its future directions.