The Color of Law A Forgotten History of How Our Government Segregated America

The Color of Law  A Forgotten History of How Our Government Segregated America
Author: Richard Rothstein
Pages: 368
ISBN: 9781631492860
Available:
Release: 2017-05-02
Editor: Liveright Publishing
Language: en

Explanation of the Book:

New York Times Bestseller • Notable Book of the Year • Editors' Choice Selection One of Bill Gates’ “Amazing Books” of the Year One of Publishers Weekly’s 10 Best Books of the Year Longlisted for the National Book Award for Nonfiction An NPR Best Book of the Year Winner of the Hillman Prize for Nonfiction Gold Winner • California Book Award (Nonfiction) Finalist • Los Angeles Times Book Prize (History) Finalist • Brooklyn Public Library Literary Prize This “powerful and disturbing history” exposes how American governments deliberately imposed racial segregation on metropolitan areas nationwide (New York Times Book Review). Widely heralded as a “masterful” (Washington Post) and “essential” (Slate) history of the modern American metropolis, Richard Rothstein’s The Color of Law offers “the most forceful argument ever published on how federal, state, and local governments gave rise to and reinforced neighborhood segregation” (William Julius Wilson). Exploding the myth of de facto segregation arising from private prejudice or the unintended consequences of economic forces, Rothstein describes how the American government systematically imposed residential segregation: with undisguised racial zoning; public housing that purposefully segregated previously mixed communities; subsidies for builders to create whites-only suburbs; tax exemptions for institutions that enforced segregation; and support for violent resistance to African Americans in white neighborhoods. A groundbreaking, “virtually indispensable” study that has already transformed our understanding of twentieth-century urban history (Chicago Daily Observer), The Color of Law forces us to face the obligation to remedy our unconstitutional past.

The Color of Law

The Color of Law
Author: Richard Rothstein
Pages: 336
ISBN: 1631492853
Available:
Release: 2017-05-02
Editor: Unknown
Language: en

Explanation of the Book:

Lauded by Ta-Nehisi Coates for his "brilliant" and "fine understanding of the machinery of government policy" (The Atlantic), Richard Rothstein has painstakingly documented how American cities, from San Francisco to Boston, became so racially divided. Rothstein describes how federal, state, and local governments systematically imposed residential segregation: with undisguised racial zoning, public housing that purposefully segregated previously mixed communities, subsidies for builders to create whites-only suburbs, tax exemptions for institutions that enforced segregation, and support for violent resistance to African Americans in white neighborhoods. He demonstrates that such policies still influence tragedies in places like Ferguson and Baltimore. Scholars have separately described many of these policies, but until now, no author has brought them together to explode the myth of de facto segregation arising from private prejudice or the unintended consequences of economic forces. Like The New Jim Crow, Rothstein's groundbreaking history forces us to face the obligation to remedy our unconstitutional past.

Illegal

Illegal
Author: Jose Angel N.
Pages: 128
ISBN: 9780252096181
Available:
Release: 2014-02-15
Editor: University of Illinois Press
Language: en

Explanation of the Book:

A day after N. first crossed the U.S. border from Mexico, he was caught and then released onto the streets of Tijuana. Undeterred, N. crawled back through a tunnel to San Diego, where he entered the United States forever. Illegal: Reflections of an Undocumented Immigrant is his timely and compelling memoir of building a new life in America. Authorial anonymity is required to protect this life. Arriving in the 1990s with a 9th grade education, N. traveled to Chicago where he found access to ESL classes and GED classes. He eventually attended college and graduate school and became a professional translator. Despite having a well-paying job, N. was isolated by a lack of official legal documentation. Travel concerns made big promotions out of reach. Vacation time was spent hiding at home, pretending that he was on a long-planned trip. The simple act of purchasing his girlfriend a beer at a Cubs baseball game caused embarrassment and shame when N. couldn't produce a valid ID. A frustrating contradiction, N. lived in a luxury high-rise condo but couldn't fully live the American dream. He did, however, find solace in the one gift America gave him–-his education. Ultimately, N.’s is the story of the triumph of education over adversity. In Illegal he debunks the stereotype that undocumented immigrants are freeloaders without access to education or opportunity for advancement. With bravery and honesty, N. details the constraints, deceptions, and humiliations that characterize alien life "amid the shadows."

The American Jewish Philanthropic Complex

The American Jewish Philanthropic Complex
Author: Lila Corwin Berman
Pages: 280
ISBN: 9780691209791
Available:
Release: 2020-10-13
Editor: Princeton University Press
Language: en

Explanation of the Book:

The first comprehensive history of American Jewish philanthropy and its influence on democracy and capitalism For years, American Jewish philanthropy has been celebrated as the proudest product of Jewish endeavors in the United States, its virtues extending from the local to the global, the Jewish to the non-Jewish, and modest donations to vast endowments. Yet, as Lila Corwin Berman illuminates in The American Jewish Philanthropic Complex, the history of American Jewish philanthropy reveals the far more complicated reality of changing and uneasy relationships among philanthropy, democracy, and capitalism. With a fresh eye and lucid prose, and relying on previously untapped sources, Berman shows that from its nineteenth-century roots to its apex in the late twentieth century, the American Jewish philanthropic complex tied Jewish institutions to the American state. The government’s regulatory efforts—most importantly, tax policies—situated philanthropy at the core of its experiments to maintain the public good without trammeling on the private freedoms of individuals. Jewish philanthropic institutions and leaders gained financial strength, political influence, and state protections within this framework. However, over time, the vast inequalities in resource distribution that marked American state policy became inseparable from philanthropic practice. By the turn of the millennium, Jewish philanthropic institutions reflected the state’s growing investment in capitalism against democratic interests. But well before that, Jewish philanthropy had already entered into a tight relationship with the governing forces of American life, reinforcing and even transforming the nation’s laws and policies. The American Jewish Philanthropic Complex uncovers how capitalism and private interests came to command authority over the public good, in Jewish life and beyond.

The Color of Money

The Color of Money
Author: Mehrsa Baradaran
Pages: 360
ISBN: 9780674982307
Available:
Release: 2017-09-14
Editor: Harvard University Press
Language: en

Explanation of the Book:

In 1863 black communities owned less than 1 percent of total U.S. wealth. Today that number has barely budged. Mehrsa Baradaran pursues this wealth gap by focusing on black banks. She challenges the myth that black banking is the solution to the racial wealth gap and argues that black communities can never accumulate wealth in a segregated economy.

Summary of The Color of Law

Summary of The Color of Law
Author: Abbey Beathan
Pages: 82
ISBN: 1646153766
Available:
Release: 2019-06-10
Editor: Unknown
Language: en

Explanation of the Book:

The Color of Law: A Forgotten History of How Our Government Segregated America by Richard Rothstein Book Summary Abbey Beathan (Disclaimer: This is NOT the original book.) An exploration of the housing policy in United States and the hidden truth about how cities are divided. It was commonly believed that cities were divided by de facto segregation, through individual prejudices like income differences and actions of private institutions. However, Richard Rothstein discovered the brutal truth, the fact that cities are divided by de jure segregation, which means that local, state and federal governments passed laws that promoted the discriminatory patterns that are present even to this date. (Note: This summary is wholly written and published by Abbey Beathan. It is not affiliated with the original author in any way) "The challenge is more difficult because low-income African Americans today confront not only segregation but also the income stagnation and blocked mobility faced by all Americans in families with low or moderate incomes." - Richard Rothstein A chronicle of an untold story that began in the 1920s and still affecting African American citizens today. Explicit racial zoning forced millions of black individuals from the North to the South. This book is a great tool to get informed about the harsh realities of America. It's not all sun and rainbows, there is a dark side to everything and America has a big one. A brilliant chronicle that debunks previous myth about housing policy and reveals the hidden truth. P.S. The Color of Law is a brilliant book that tell us a dark secret that had been hidden until now. P.P.S. It was Albert Einstein who famously said that once you stop learning, you start dying. It was Bill Gates who said that he would want the ability to read faster if he could only have one superpower in this world. Abbey Beathan's mission is to bring across amazing golden nuggets in amazing books through our summaries. Our vision is to make reading non-fiction fun, dynamic and captivating. Ready To Be A Part Of Our Vision & Mission? Scroll Up Now and Click on the "Buy now with 1-Click" Button to Get Your Copy. Why Abbey Beathan's Summaries? How Can Abbey Beathan Serve You? Amazing Refresher if you've read the original book before Priceless Checklist in case you missed out any crucial lessons/details Perfect Choice if you're interested in the original book but never read it before Disclaimer Once Again: This book is meant for a great companionship of the original book or to simply get the gist of the original book. "One of the greatest and most powerful gift in life is the gift of knowledge. The way of success is the way of continuous pursuit of knowledge" - Abbey Beathan

Sex and the Constitution Sex Religion and Law from America s Origins to the Twenty First Century

Sex and the Constitution  Sex  Religion  and Law from America s Origins to the Twenty First Century
Author: Geoffrey R. Stone
Pages: 704
ISBN: 9781631493652
Available:
Release: 2017-03-21
Editor: Liveright Publishing
Language: en

Explanation of the Book:

A New York Times Book Review Editors’ Choice Selection A “volume of lasting significance” that illuminates how the clash between sex and religion has defined our nation’s history (Lee C. Bollinger, president, Columbia University). Lauded for “bringing a bracing and much-needed dose of reality about the Founders’ views of sexuality” (New York Review of Books), Geoffrey R. Stone’s Sex and the Constitution traces the evolution of legal and moral codes that have legislated sexual behavior from America’s earliest days to today’s fractious political climate. This “fascinating and maddening” (Pittsburgh Post-Gazette) narrative shows how agitators, moralists, and, especially, the justices of the Supreme Court have navigated issues as divisive as abortion, homosexuality, pornography, and contraception. Overturning a raft of contemporary shibboleths, Stone reveals that at the time the Constitution was adopted there were no laws against obscenity or abortion before the midpoint of pregnancy. A pageant of historical characters, including Voltaire, Thomas Jefferson, Anthony Comstock, Margaret Sanger, and Justice Anthony Kennedy, enliven this “commanding synthesis of scholarship” (Publishers Weekly) that dramatically reveals how our laws about sex, religion, and morality reflect the cultural schisms that have cleaved our nation from its founding.

American Apartheid

American Apartheid
Author: Douglas Massey
Pages: 312
ISBN: 9780674251533
Available:
Release: 1998-07-15
Editor: Harvard University Press
Language: en

Explanation of the Book:

This powerful and disturbing book clearly links persistent poverty among blacks in the United States to the unparalleled degree of deliberate segregation they experience in American cities. American Apartheid shows how the black ghetto was created by whites during the first half of the twentieth century in order to isolate growing urban black populations. It goes on to show that, despite the Fair Housing Act of 1968, segregation is perpetuated today through an interlocking set of individual actions, institutional practices, and governmental policies. In some urban areas the degree of black segregation is so intense and occurs in so many dimensions simultaneously that it amounts to “hypersegregation.” Douglas Massey and Nancy Denton demonstrate that this systematic segregation of African Americans leads inexorably to the creation of underclass communities during periods of economic downturn. Under conditions of extreme segregation, any increase in the overall rate of black poverty yields a marked increase in the geographic concentration of indigence and the deterioration of social and economic conditions in black communities. As ghetto residents adapt to this increasingly harsh environment under a climate of racial isolation, they evolve attitudes, behaviors, and practices that further marginalize their neighborhoods and undermine their chances of success in mainstream American society. This book is a sober challenge to those who argue that race is of declining significance in the United States today.

Grading Education

Grading Education
Author: Richard Rothstein
Pages: 280
ISBN: 0807749397
Available:
Release: 2008-12-14
Editor: Teachers College Press
Language: en

Explanation of the Book:

Yes, we should hold public schools accountable for effectively spending the vast funds with which they have been entrusted. But accountability policies like No Child Left Behind, based exclusively on math and reading test scores, have narrowed the curriculum, misidentified both failing and successful schools, and established irresponsible expectations for what schools can accomplish. Instead of just grading progress in one or two narrow subjects, we should hold schools accountable for the broad outcomes we expect from public education —basic knowledge and skills, critical thinking, an appreciation of the arts, physical and emotional health, and preparation for skilled employment —and then develop the means to measure and ensure schools’ success in achieving them. Grading Education describes a new kind of accountability plan for public education, one that relies on higher-quality testing, focuses on professional evaluation, and builds on capacities we already possess. This important resource: Describes the design of an alternative accountability system that would not corrupt education as does NCLB and its state testing systems Explains the original design of NAEP in the 1960s, and shows why it should be revived. Defines the broad goals of education, beyond math and reading test scores, and reports on surveys to confirm public and governmental support for such goals. Relates these broad goals of education to the desire for accountability in education.

The Truly Disadvantaged

The Truly Disadvantaged
Author: William Julius Wilson
Pages: 320
ISBN: 9780226924656
Available:
Release: 2012-06-29
Editor: University of Chicago Press
Language: en

Explanation of the Book:

Renowned American sociologist William Julius Wilson takes a look at the social transformation of inner city ghettos, offering a sharp evaluation of the convergence of race and poverty. Rejecting both conservative and liberal interpretations of life in the inner city, Wilson offers essential information and a number of solutions to policymakers. The Truly Disadvantaged is a wide-ranging examination, looking at the relationship between race, employment, and education from the 1950s onwards, with surprising and provocative findings. This second edition also includes a new afterword from Wilson himself that brings the book up to date and offers fresh insight into its findings. “The Truly Disadvantaged should spur critical thinking in many quarters about the causes and possible remedies for inner city poverty. As policymakers grapple with the problems of an enlarged underclass they—as well as community leaders and all concerned Americans of all races—would be advised to examine Mr. Wilson's incisive analysis.”—Robert Greenstein, New York Times Book Review

Summary of The Color of Law

Summary of The Color of Law
Author: Fireside Reads
Pages: 60
ISBN: 9798685914002
Available:
Release: 2020-09-13
Editor: Unknown
Language: en

Explanation of the Book:

Learn the Invaluable Lessons from The Color of Law: A Forgotten History of How Our Government Segregated America by Richard Rothstein and Apply it into Your Life Without Missing Out!What's it worth to you to have just ONE good idea applied to your life?In many cases, it may mean expanded paychecks, better vitality, and magical relationships. Here's an Introduction of What You're About to Discover in this Premium Summary of The Color of Law: A Forgotten History of How Our Government Segregated America by Richard Rothstein: Richard Rothstein, a distinguished historian and author, wrote The Color of Law: A Forgotten History of How Our Government Segregated America. Through his book, Rothstein revealed the very disturbing and dark history of how past governments and its leaders actively participated in the unceasing racial segregation of African Americans in the urban areas of the United States. The Color of Law, published under the Liveright on May 2, 2017, is a New York Times Best Seller and Notable Book of the Year. It was also picked as one of the Editors' Choice Selections of the said daily news publication. Plus, - Executive "Snapshot" Summary of The Color of Law: A Forgotten History of How Our Government Segregated America- Background Story and History of The Color of Law: A Forgotten History of How Our Government Segregated America for a Much Richer Reading Experience - Key Lessons Extracted from The Color of Law: A Forgotten History of How Our Government Segregated America and Exercises to Apply it into your Life - Immediately!- About the Hero of the Book: Richard Rothstein - Tantalizing Trivia Questions for Better Retention Scroll Up and Buy Now! 100% Guaranteed You'll Find Thousands of Dollars Worth of Ideas in This Book or Your Money BackFaster You Order - Faster You'll Have it in Your Hands!*Please note: This is a summary and workbook meant to supplement and not replace the original book.

The Age of Austerity

The Age of Austerity
Author: Thomas Byrne Edsall
Pages: 208
ISBN: 9780385535205
Available:
Release: 2012-01-10
Editor: Anchor
Language: en

Explanation of the Book:

One of our most prescient political observers provides a sobering account of how pitched battles over scarce resources will increasingly define American politics in the coming years—and how we might avoid, or at least mitigate, the damage from these ideological and economic battles. In a matter of just three years, a bitter struggle over limited resources has enveloped political discourse at every level in the United States. Fights between haves and have-nots over health care, unemployment benefits, funding for mortgage write-downs, economic stimulus legislation—and, at the local level, over cuts in police protection, garbage collection, and in the number of teachers—have dominated the debate. Elected officials are being forced to make zero-sum choices—or worse, choices with no winners. Resource competition between Democrats and Republicans has left each side determined to protect what it has at the expense of the other. The major issues of the next few years—long-term deficit reduction; entitlement reform, notably of Social Security, Medicare, and Medicaid; major cuts in defense spending; and difficulty in financing a continuation of American international involvement—suggest that your-gain-is-my-loss politics will inevitably intensify.

The Strange Careers of the Jim Crow North

The Strange Careers of the Jim Crow North
Author: Brian Purnell
Pages: 352
ISBN: 9781479820337
Available:
Release: 2019-04-23
Editor: NYU Press
Language: en

Explanation of the Book:

Did American racism originate in the liberal North? An inquiry into the system of institutionalized racism created by Northern Jim Crow Jim Crow was not a regional sickness, it was a national cancer. Even at the high point of twentieth century liberalism in the North, Jim Crow racism hid in plain sight. Perpetuated by colorblind arguments about “cultures of poverty,” policies focused more on black criminality than black equality. Procedures that diverted resources in education, housing, and jobs away from poor black people turned ghettos and prisons into social pandemics. Americans in the North made this history. They tried to unmake it, too. Liberalism, rather than lighting the way to vanquish the darkness of the Jim Crow North gave racism new and complex places to hide. The twelve original essays in this anthology unveil Jim Crow’s many strange careers in the North. They accomplish two goals: first, they show how the Jim Crow North worked as a system to maintain social, economic, and political inequality in the nation’s most liberal places; and second, they chronicle how activists worked to undo the legal, economic, and social inequities born of Northern Jim Crow policies, practices, and ideas. The book ultimately dispels the myth that the South was the birthplace of American racism, and presents a compelling argument that American racism actually originated in the North.

The Color of the Law

The Color of the Law
Author: Gail Williams O'Brien
Pages: 352
ISBN: 9780807882306
Available:
Release: 2011-02-01
Editor: Univ of North Carolina Press
Language: en

Explanation of the Book:

On February 25, 1946, African Americans in Columbia, Tennessee, averted the lynching of James Stephenson, a nineteen-year-old, black Navy veteran accused of attacking a white radio repairman at a local department store. That night, after Stephenson was safely out of town, four of Columbia's police officers were shot and wounded when they tried to enter the town's black business district. The next morning, the Tennessee Highway Patrol invaded the district, wrecking establishments and beating men as they arrested them. By day's end, more than one hundred African Americans had been jailed. Two days later, highway patrolmen killed two of the arrestees while they were awaiting release from jail. Drawing on oral interviews and a rich array of written sources, Gail Williams O'Brien tells the dramatic story of the Columbia "race riot," the national attention it drew, and its surprising legal aftermath. In the process, she illuminates the effects of World War II on race relations and the criminal justice system in the United States. O'Brien argues that the Columbia events are emblematic of a nationwide shift during the 1940s from mob violence against African Americans to increased confrontations between blacks and the police and courts. As such, they reveal the history behind such contemporary conflicts as the Rodney King and O. J. Simpson cases.

The Broken Heart of America

The Broken Heart of America
Author: Walter Johnson
Pages: 528
ISBN: 9781541646063
Available:
Release: 2020-04-14
Editor: Basic Books
Language: en

Explanation of the Book:

A searing portrait of the racial dynamics that lie inescapably at the heart of our nation, told through the turbulent history of the city of St. Louis. From Lewis and Clark's 1804 expedition to the 2014 uprising in Ferguson, American history has been made in St. Louis. And as Walter Johnson shows in this searing book, the city exemplifies how imperialism, racism, and capitalism have persistently entwined to corrupt the nation's past. St. Louis was a staging post for Indian removal and imperial expansion, and its wealth grew on the backs of its poor black residents, from slavery through redlining and urban renewal. But it was once also America's most radical city, home to anti-capitalist immigrants, the Civil War's first general emancipation, and the nation's first general strike—a legacy of resistance that endures. A blistering history of a city's rise and decline, The Broken Heart of America will forever change how we think about the United States.

Summary The Color of Law A Forgotten History of How Our

Summary  The Color of Law  A Forgotten History of How Our
Author: Anonim
Pages: 329
ISBN:
Available:
Release: 2021
Editor: Unknown
Language: en

Explanation of the Book:

The Ages of Globalization

The Ages of Globalization
Author: Jeffrey D. Sachs
Pages: 262
ISBN: 9780231550482
Available:
Release: 2020-06-02
Editor: Columbia University Press
Language: en

Explanation of the Book:

Today’s most urgent problems are fundamentally global. They require nothing less than concerted, planetwide action if we are to secure a long-term future. But humanity’s story has always been on a global scale. In this book, Jeffrey D. Sachs, renowned economist and expert on sustainable development, turns to world history to shed light on how we can meet the challenges and opportunities of the twenty-first century. Sachs takes readers through a series of seven distinct waves of technological and institutional change, starting with the original settling of the planet by early modern humans through long-distance migration and ending with reflections on today’s globalization. Along the way, he considers how the interplay of geography, technology, and institutions influenced the Neolithic revolution; the role of the horse in the emergence of empires; the spread of large land-based empires in the classical age; the rise of global empires after the opening of sea routes from Europe to Asia and the Americas; and the industrial age. The dynamics of these past waves, Sachs demonstrates, offer fresh perspective on the ongoing processes taking place in our own time—a globalization based on digital technologies. Sachs emphasizes the need for new methods of international governance and cooperation to prevent conflicts and to achieve economic, social, and environmental objectives aligned with sustainable development. The Ages of Globalization is a vital book for all readers aiming to make sense of our rapidly changing world.

Class and Schools

Class and Schools
Author: Richard Rothstein
Pages: 210
ISBN: 0807745561
Available:
Release: 2004
Editor: Teachers College Press
Language: en

Explanation of the Book:

Contemporary public policy assumes that the achievement gap between black and white students could be closed if only schools would do a better job. According to Richard Rothstein, "Closing the gaps between lower-class and middle-class children requires social and economic reform as well as school improvement. Unfortunately, the trend is to shift most of the burden to schools, as if they alone can eradicate poverty and inequality." In this book, Rothstein points the way toward social and economic reforms that would give all children a more equal chance to succeed in school. This book features: a summary of numerous studies linking school achievement to health care quality, nutrition, childrearing styles, housing stability, parental economic security, and more ; aA look at erroneous and misleading data that underlie commonplace claims that some schools "beat the demographic odds and therefore any school can close the achievement gap if only it adopted proper practices." ; and an analysis of how the over-emphasis of standardized tests in federal law obscures the true achievement gap and makes narrowing it more difficult.

African Americans and US Popular Culture

African Americans and US Popular Culture
Author: Kevern Verney
Pages: 144
ISBN: 9781136475276
Available:
Release: 2013-06-17
Editor: Routledge
Language: en

Explanation of the Book:

This volume is an authoritative introduction to the history of African Americans in US popular culture, examining its development from the early nineteenth century to the present. Kevern Verney examines: * the role and significance of race in all major forms of popular culture, including sport, film, television, radio and music * how the entertainment industry has encouraged racism through misrepresentations and caricatured images of African Americans. African Americans have made a unique contribution to the richness and diversity of US popular culture. Rooted in African society and traditions, black slaves in America created a dynamic culture which continues to evolve. Present day hip-hop and rap music are still shaped by the historical experience of slavery and the ongoing will to oppose oppression and racism. Any student of African-American history or cultural studies will find this a fascinating and highly useful book.

Family Properties

Family Properties
Author: Beryl Satter
Pages: 512
ISBN: 9781429952606
Available:
Release: 2010-03-02
Editor: Metropolitan Books
Language: en

Explanation of the Book:

Part family story and part urban history, a landmark investigation of segregation and urban decay in Chicago -- and cities across the nation The "promised land" for thousands of Southern blacks, postwar Chicago quickly became the most segregated city in the North, the site of the nation's worst ghettos and the target of Martin Luther King Jr.'s first campaign beyond the South. In this powerful book, Beryl Satter identifies the true causes of the city's black slums and the ruin of urban neighborhoods throughout the country: not, as some have argued, black pathology, the culture of poverty, or white flight, but a widespread and institutionalized system of legal and financial exploitation. In Satter's riveting account of a city in crisis, unscrupulous lawyers, slumlords, and speculators are pitched against religious reformers, community organizers, and an impassioned attorney who launched a crusade against the profiteers—the author's father, Mark J. Satter. At the heart of the struggle stand the black migrants who, having left the South with its legacy of sharecropping, suddenly find themselves caught in a new kind of debt peonage. Satter shows the interlocking forces at work in their oppression: the discriminatory practices of the banking industry; the federal policies that created the country's shameful "dual housing market"; the economic anxieties that fueled white violence; and the tempting profits to be made by preying on the city's most vulnerable population. Family Properties: Race, Real Estate, and the Exploitation of Black Urban America is a monumental work of history, this tale of racism and real estate, politics and finance, will forever change our understanding of the forces that transformed urban America. "Gripping . . . This painstaking portrayal of the human costs of financial racism is the most important book yet written on the black freedom struggle in the urban North."—David Garrow, The Washington Post