Synthetic Cathinones

Synthetic Cathinones
Author: Jolanta B. Zawilska
Pages: 207
ISBN: 9783319787077
Available:
Release: 2018-04-16
Editor: Springer
Language: en

Explanation of the Book:

Over the last decade, and particularly during the recent five years, a rapidly increasing number of novel psychoactive substance (NPSs), often marketed as “designer drugs”, “legal highs”, “herbal highs”, “research or intermediate chemicals” and “laboratory reagents”, has appeared on the drug market in an effort to bypass controlled substance legislation. NPSs encompass a wide range of different compounds and drug classes but had been dominated by synthetic cannabinomimetics and psychostimulatory synthetic cathinones, so-called β-keto amphetamines. Compounds from the later class were first detected in Europe in 2004, and since then 103 new cathinones have been identified and reported to the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction, with 57 during the last two years. Synthetic cathinones – novel addictive and stimulatory psychoactive substances is the first publication of this kind that provides readers with background on chemical structures, detection, prevalence and motivation of use of the very popular group of NPSs. This book also presents comprehensive overview of the mechanisms of action, pharmacological activity, and main metabolic pathways of synthetic cathinones, followed by a detailed discussion of the acute and chronic toxicity associated with the use of these substances. Written by international experts in the field, this multi-authored book is a valuable reference not only for scientists, clinicians and academics, but also for readers representing different professional background who are involved in educational-prophylactic activities directed to harm reduction of psychoactive compounds.

Dangerous Illicit Drug Alerts

Dangerous Illicit Drug Alerts
Author: U. S. Department of Justice,National Drug Intelligence Center,U. S. Government
Pages: 72
ISBN: 1521234620
Available:
Release: 2017-05-06
Editor: Unknown
Language: en

Explanation of the Book:

The National Drug Intelligence Center (NDIC) has prepared these important dangerous drug alerts about unique and serious threats: Synthetic Cathinones (Bath Salts), Mephedrone, Synthetic Cannabinoids, Purple Drank, Synthetic Hallucinogen 2C-E, Oxymorphone Abuse, Opium Tea, Salvia Divinorum. Synthetic cathinones, typically marketed as "bath salts" and "plant food," are sold legally under various names (Ivory Wave, Blizzard, etc.) in most areas of the United States. The products are generally sold in retail establishments such as adult stores, independently owned convenience stores, gas stations, head shops, and skateboard shops. The products, as well as their raw chemical components, are also sold on many Internet sites, including popular Internet auction sites. Additionally, synthetic cathinones have been sold by independent dealers as ecstasy a-in powdered form, in single-component tablets and capsules, and in tablets and capsules containing cathinones combined with MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine) or other illicit controlled substances. Abusers typically ingest, inhale, inject, smoke, or snort (insufflate) the drugs to experience stimulant effects similar to those induced by amphetamine. Manufacturers and distributors of synthetic cathinone products evade U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) regulation and enforcement because synthetic cathinones are not scheduled under the Federal Controlled Substances Act (CSA). However, possession and distribution of the synthetic cathinones may be prosecuted, albeit with greater difficulty, under the Federal Controlled Substance Analogue Enforcement Act of 1986 (as amended)b of the CSA. The availability and suitability of a prosecution under the analogue statute depends on the particular compound being trafficked and the facts of the case. Further, distributors deceptively market synthetic cathinone products as "not for human consumption" to evade U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) scrutiny. Cathinone products that are introduced into interstate commerce and promoted as alternatives to illicit street drugs may be prosecutable under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act as unapproved new drugs and misbranded drugs. (See the offenses at 21 U.S.C. 331(a), (d) and penalties at 21 U.S.C. 333.)1 Additionally, members of the Congress have introduced legislation to nationally ban the sale of certain synthetic cathinones, c and, as of April 2011, all 50 states and the District of Columbia have introduced or announced plans to introduce legislation banning or restricting the distribution and possession of certain synthetic cathinones and cathinone derivatives. As synthetic cathinones become more regulated, abusers will likely use the Internet with greater frequency to purchase cathinone products, the raw chemicals used in their production, and products that contain cathinones not specifically prohibited by enacted legislation. The illicit trafficking and abuse of drugs present a challenging, dynamic threat to the United States. Overall demand is rising, largely supplied by illicit drugs smuggled to U.S. markets by major transnational criminal organizations (TCOs). Changing conditions continue to alter patterns in drug production, trafficking, and abuse. Traffickers are responding to government counterdrug efforts by modifying their interrelationships, altering drug production levels, and adjusting their trafficking routes and methods. Major Mexican-based TCOs continue to solidify their dominance over the wholesale illicit drug trade as they control the movement of most of the foreign-produced drug supply across the U.S. Southwest Border.

Synthetic Cathinones Bath Salts

Synthetic Cathinones  Bath Salts
Author: U. S. Department U.S. Department of Justice
Pages: 24
ISBN: 1503231127
Available:
Release: 2014-11-16
Editor: CreateSpace
Language: en

Explanation of the Book:

The National Drug Intelligence Center (NDIC) assesses with high confidence that the distribution and abuse of synthetic cathinones will increase in the United States in the near term, posing yet another challenge to U.S. law enforcement officials. Poison control centers and medical professionals around the country are increasingly reporting patients suffering adverse physical effects associated with abuse of these drugs, further compounding the problem. Available data and law enforcement reporting suggest increasing levels of synthetic cathinone availability and abuse, but such information is limited and precise levels are unknown. U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) currently tracks seizures of synthetic cathinones at U.S. ports of entry (POEs), but many synthetic cathinone products are disguised or mislabeled to impede detection. Because common field test kits, drug-detecting canines, and routine urine drug screens do not detect synthetic cathinones, law enforcement officials are challenged in interdicting such drugs and prosecuting their manufacturers and distributors. Synthetic cathinones, typically marketed as "bath salts" and "plant food," are sold legally under various names (Ivory Wave, Blizzard, etc.) in most areas of the United States. The products are generally sold in retail establishments such as adult stores, independently owned convenience stores, gas stations, head shops, and skateboard shops. The products, as well as their raw chemical components, are also sold on many Internet sites, including popular Internet auction sites. Additionally, synthetic cathinones have been sold by independent dealers as ecstasya-in powdered form, in single-component tablets and capsules, and in tablets and capsules containing cathinones combined with MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine) or other illicit controlled substances. Abusers typically ingest, inhale, inject, smoke, or snort (insufflate) the drugs to experience stimulant effects similar to those induced by amphetamine. Manufacturers and distributors of synthetic cathinone products evade U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) regulation and enforcement because synthetic cathinones are not scheduled under the Federal Controlled Substances Act (CSA). However, possession and distribution of the synthetic cathinones may be prosecuted, albeit with greater difficulty, under the Federal Controlled Substance Analogue Enforcement Act of 1986 (as amended)b of the CSA. The availability and suitability of a prosecution under the analogue statute depends on the particular compound being trafficked and the facts of the case. Further, distributors deceptively market synthetic cathinone products as "not for human consumption" to evade U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) scrutiny. Cathinone products that are introduced into interstate commerce and promoted as alternatives to illicit street drugs may be prosecutable under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act as unapproved new drugs and misbranded drugs. (See the offenses at 21 U.S.C. 331(a), (d) and penalties at 21 U.S.C. 333.)1 Additionally, members of the Congress have introduced legislation to nationally ban the sale of certain synthetic cathinones, c and, as of April 2011, all 50 states and the District of Columbia have introduced or announced plans to introduce legislation banning or restricting the distribution and possession of certain synthetic cathinones and cathinone derivatives. As synthetic cathinones become more regulated, abusers will likely use the Internet with greater frequency to purchase cathinone products, the raw chemicals used in their production, and products that contain cathinones not specifically prohibited by enacted legislation.

Synthetic Cathinones

Synthetic Cathinones
Author: Anonim
Pages: 329
ISBN: 331978708X
Available:
Release: 2018
Editor: Unknown
Language: en

Explanation of the Book:

Over the last decade a rapidly increasing number of novel psychoactive substance (NPSs), often marketed as "designer drugs", "legal highs", "herbal highs", "research or intermediate chemicals" and "laboratory reagents", has appeared on the drug market worldwide in an effort to bypass controlled substance legislation. NPSs encompass a wide range of different compounds and drug classes but had been dominated by synthetic cannabinomimetics and psychostimulatory synthetic cathinones, so-called b-keto amphetamines. Compounds from the later class were first detected in Europe in 2004, and since that time more than 130 new cathinones have been identified and reported to the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction. The rapid and extensive worldwide rise of synthetic cathinone abuse is attracting increasing attention, due to many intoxications and overdose deaths.

Synthetic Cathinones bath Salts

Synthetic Cathinones  bath Salts
Author: National Drug Intelligence Center (U.S.)
Pages: 15
ISBN: OCLC:756913518
Available:
Release: 2011
Editor: Unknown
Language: en

Explanation of the Book:

Synthetic cathinones are central nervous system stimulants. Typically marketed as "bath salts" and "plant food," synthetic cathinones sold legally under various names (Ivory Wave, Blizzard, etc.) in most areas of the United States. The National Drug Intelligence Center (NDIC) assesses with high confidence that the distribution and abuse of synthetic cathinones will increase in the United States in the near term, posing yet another challenge to U.S. law enforcement officials.

Understanding Structure activity Relationship of Synthetic Cathinones bath Salts Utilizing Methylphenidate

Understanding Structure activity Relationship of Synthetic Cathinones  bath Salts  Utilizing Methylphenidate
Author: Barkha J. Yadav
Pages: 329
ISBN: OCLC:1129044472
Available:
Release: 2019
Editor: Unknown
Language: en

Explanation of the Book:

Synthetic cathinones are stimulant drugs of abuse that act at monoamine transporters e.g. the dopamine transporter (DAT) as releasing agents or as reuptake inhibitors. More than>150 new synthetic cathinones have emerged on the clandestine market and have attracted considerable attention from the medical and law enforcement communities. threo-Methylphenidate (tMP) is an FDA approved drug for the treatment of ADHD and narcolepsy, which also acts as a DAT reuptake inhibitor and is widely abused. tMP and synthetic cathinones share some structural similarities and extensive structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies on tMP have been conducted. However, much less is known about the SAR of synthetic cathinones, and the available MP literature might assist in understanding it. The main focus of this research was to compare SAR between methylphenidate-cathinone hybrids and available methylphenidate SAR in order to identify some guiding principles that might allowus to predict their abuse potential and to identify which cathinones should betargeted for more extensive evaluation. In the present study, we evaluated eight 2-benzoylpiperidine analogs and a descarbonyl analog to determine if tMP SAR can be applied to cathinone SAR. We conducted molecular modeling and docking studies and predicted the order of potency to be tMP> 2-benzoylpiperidine> 2-benzylpiperidine based on the number of hydrogen bonds. The synthesized analogs were evaluated in a competition assay using live-cell imaging against APP+ in HEK293 cells stably expressing hDAT. All compounds were found to be DAT reuptake inhibitors and, as the modeling studies predicted, the order of potency in our functional studies was also found to be tMP> 2-benzoylpiperidine> 2- benzylpiperidine. A significant correlation was obtained between the potency of the benzoylpiperidines and tMP binding data (r = 0.91) suggesting that the SAR of tMP analogs might be applicable to the synthetic cathinones as DAT reuptake inhibitors.

Psychoactive Synthetic Cathinones or bath Salts

Psychoactive Synthetic Cathinones  or  bath Salts
Author: Farhana Sakloth
Pages: 329
ISBN: OCLC:944990200
Available:
Release: 2015
Editor: Unknown
Language: en

Explanation of the Book:

Synthetic cathinones represent threatening and high abuse-potential designer drugs. These are analogs of cathinone (the b-keto analog of amphetamine (AMPH)) a naturally occurring stimulant found in the plant Catha Edulis. Methcathinone (MCAT) was the first synthetic analog of cathinone to be identified in 1987 by Glennon and co-workers and it exerted its action primarily through the dopamine transporter (DAT). Most central stimulants exert their action via monomaine transporters by causing either the release (e.g. cathinone analogs such as MCAT) or by preventing the reuptake (e.g. cocaine) of the neurotransmitter dopamine (DA) thus increasing the extracellular synaptosomal concentration of this neurotransmitter. In 2010, a new class of designer cathinone-like drugs called 'bath salts', initially a combination of methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV), methylone (methylenedioxymethcathione, MDMC) and mephedrone (MEPH), soared to popularity. It caused extremely detrimental side effects; it was exceedingly popular for its recreational use and posed a threat to public health. At the time, their mechanisms of action were unknown. Our group identified that MDPV produced actions distinct from other cathinone analogs (i.e., it was identified as the first cathinone-like compound to act as a reuptake inhibitor at the dopamine transporter (DAT)). These findings suggested that not all cathinone-like compounds act uniformly and this insinuated that unique structural features on the cathinone scaffold might contribute to different effects at the transporter level. The overall goal of this project was to study the mechanisms of action of synthetic cathinones (including 'bath salts') at the monoamine transporters. We investigated the contribution of each of various structural features on the cathinone scaffold (i.e, the terminal amine, a and b positions, and the phenyl ring). We also constructed homology models of the human dopamine and serotonin transporters (hDAT and hSERT respectively) to help explain differences in selectivity between the neurochemical and behavioral aspects of DAT and SERT. Overall we found that structural features contributed to similar or distinctive mechanisms of action and also contributed to selectivity at monoamine transporters. Our studies provide information that can be useful to drug and health regulatory agencies to help prevent, treat, or curb the future abuse of such drugs.

Structure activity Relationship Studies of Synthetic Cathinones and Related Agents

Structure activity Relationship Studies of Synthetic Cathinones and Related Agents
Author: Rachel A. Davies
Pages: 329
ISBN: OCLC:1129044592
Available:
Release: 2019
Editor: Unknown
Language: en

Explanation of the Book:

Synthetic cathinones and related agents represent an international drug abuse problem, and at the same time an important class of clinically useful compounds. Structure-activity relationship studies are needed to elucidate molecular features underlying the pharmacology of these agents. Illicit methcathinone (i.e., MCAT), the prototype of the synthetic cathinone class, exists as a racemic mixture. Though the differences in potency and target selectivity between the positional and optical isomers of synthetic cathinones and related agents have been demonstrated to have important implications for abuse and therapeutic potential, the two MCAT isomers have never been directly compared at their molecular targets: the monoamine transporters (MATs). Additionally, previous studies have found that the carbonyl oxygen atom can be replaced with a methoxy group, but this results in two chiral centers (i.e., four possible optical isomers for synthesis and evaluation). Here, the individual isomers of MCAT, their racemate, and achiral MCAT analogs were prepared where necessary, and examined in vitro and in silico at the MATs. All agents were active as substrates, with a rank order of potency suggesting that[alpha]-position chirality, in either configuration, is favored but not required, with the S( - ) configuration slightly preferred. Either chiral center removal approach resulted in a reduction in potency, suggesting both favorable interactions with the[alpha]-methyl, and limited bulk tolerance. To further investigate this possibility, docking studies were conducted using homology models of the MATs. Common binding modes were identified that were similar to the binding mode of S(+)amphetamine co-crystallized at drosophila DAT. Taken together, these studies supported our conclusions, as steric hindrance was observed in the[alpha]-methyl region of the proposed binding site for the R(+)MCAT isomer. Inclusion of the original synthetic cathinones among Schedule I controlled substances has driven the clandestine development of a second generation of agents, resulting in an array of new synthetic cathinones diverse in structure and effect. Pyrrolidinophenones are a major constituent of second-generation bath salts. Little is known about their structure-activity relationships. Here, we have synthesized and examined a series of aryl-substituted pyrrolidinophenone analogs, as well as an achiral pyrrolidinophenone analog, utilizing novel synthetic chemistry and an innovative cell-based epifluorescence Ca2imaging technique. Herein, we evaluated the neurochemical properties of these novel compounds at the dopamine transporter (DAT), considered to exert a major role in actions of drugs of abuse. For future structure-activity relationship studies, additional analogs of synthetic cathinone-related agents were produced using novel synthetic approaches, including analogs and isomers of known amphetamine drugs of abuse. Finally, though much has been learned about the role of the dopamine and serotonin transporters in the mechanisms of action of synthetic cathinones, the role of the norepinephrine transporter is poorly understood. Homology models of the human norephinephrine transporter were built and docking studies conducted to inform the study of MAT ligand selectivity, activity, and binding. In conclusion, these studies represent progress towards the establishment of comprehensive structure-activity relationships for synthetic cathinones and related agents. Particular emphasis was placed on the SAR of the phenylalkylamine[alpha]-carbon in the synthetic cathinone context, and the role of the norepinephrine transporter in their activity.

Determination of Synthetic Cathinones in Oral Fluid

Determination of Synthetic Cathinones in Oral Fluid
Author: Briana Miller (M.S.)
Pages: 60
ISBN: OCLC:964628843
Available:
Release: 2016
Editor: Unknown
Language: en

Explanation of the Book:

Synthetic cathinones are new stimulant drugs derived from cathinones that have been sold as "bath salts" worldwide. These compounds can elicit powerful effects such as delusions, halucinations as well as other potentially dangerous behavior. New analogs with varying effects and potencies are constantly introduced in the market to evade legislation, and they are not detected by routine screening and confirmation methods. Oral fluid is an alternative matrix of increasing interest in forensic toxicology. Its collection is non-invasive and easily supervised, and positive drug findings typically reflect recent drug exposure.

Long term Stability of Synthetic Cathinones in Forensic Toxicology Samples

Long term Stability of Synthetic Cathinones in Forensic Toxicology Samples
Author: Sarah Kerrigan,Lindsay Glicksberg
Pages: 94
ISBN: OCLC:1019129624
Available:
Release: 2016
Editor: Unknown
Language: en

Explanation of the Book:

The synthetic cathinones are powerful psychostimulants that have been associated with impairment, intoxication, and fatal overdose. Forensic laboratories must be able to identify these new drugs as part of antemortem and postmortem toxicology investigations. Anecdotally, and in a small number of preliminary reports, some of the cathinones are reported to be unstable. It is important to understand drug stability in biological evidence in order to interpret analytical findings in criminal and death investigations. The purpose of this study was to systematically evaluate the stability of synthetic cathinones in urine and blood using liquid-chromatography/quadrupole-time of flight-mass spectrometry (LC-Q/TOF-MS). The stability of twenty-two synthetic cathinones were investigated in terms of pH, temperature, and structural characteristics.

Chiral Separation and Quantitation of Khat Designer Drug Synthetic Cathinones in Urine and Plasma

Chiral Separation and Quantitation of Khat Designer Drug  Synthetic Cathinones  in Urine and Plasma
Author: Rashed Humaid Ahmad Khalfan Bin Huzaim
Pages: 614
ISBN: OCLC:1103755145
Available:
Release: 2016
Editor: Unknown
Language: en

Explanation of the Book:

Differentiation of Synthetic Cathinones Via Attenuated Total Reflectance fournier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy ATR FTIR

Differentiation of Synthetic Cathinones Via Attenuated Total Reflectance fournier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy  ATR FTIR
Author: Christopher D'Amario
Pages: 140
ISBN: OCLC:1078895322
Available:
Release: 2018
Editor: Unknown
Language: en

Explanation of the Book:

Novel Psychoactive Drugs

Novel Psychoactive Drugs
Author: Liana Fattore,Aviv Weinstein
Pages: 196
ISBN: 9782889458646
Available:
Release: 2019-06-05
Editor: Frontiers Media SA
Language: en

Explanation of the Book:

An increasing number of novel psychoactive drugs are currently available and sold as 'legal highs' or 'research chemicals'. These New Psychoactive Substances (NPS) constitute a broad range of hundreds of natural and synthetic drugs, including synthetic cannabinoids, synthetic cathinones, synthetic opioids and other classes, which use has resulted in a significantly growing number of intoxication and mortality, as reported by emergency and poison centres from all over the world. Definition of “NPS” includes any substance that has recently become available and has been designed purposely to replace illegal drugs, although not necessarily of new synthesis. Use of NPS is dramatically increased in the last decade and represents a serious risk for the public health. Their ever-evolving chemical structure, the possibility to distribute in real time through the Internet and social networks information about their use and effects have dramatically challenged public health and drug policies internationally. NPS recently attracted great attention, but most are still unregulated and proposed online as legal alternatives to traditional illicit drugs. Unfortunately, this area is still poorly investigated and very limited information are available so far on their nature and potential risks. The phenomenon of NPS requires multi-national and multi-disciplinary collaborations to improve our knowledge on this changing drug market, to share information and define good practices at a global level. Political and educational efforts are indispensable to regulate this mutable scenario and to inform the public about health consequences of NPS use. Clinicians and emergency staff should be aware that NPS may cause severe health consequences and unexpected adverse effects, and be informed on how to recognized and treat specific intoxication cases. Considering the widespread use of NPS and paucity of information about their toxicology and pharmacology, this Research Topic will be useful to understand the new trends in the scenario of drug use, abuse and addiction to inform professionals and general public about the health problems caused by NPS and to help drug-control policies to adopt suitable control measures.

Get Smart About Synthetic Drugs

Get Smart About Synthetic Drugs
Author: Anonymous
Pages: 40
ISBN: 9781616495169
Available:
Release: 2013-08-07
Editor: Simon and Schuster
Language: en

Explanation of the Book:

Learn the basic facts behind the dangers of synthetic drugs, including bath salts, synthetic marijuana, and other emerging drugs, their chemistry and harmful effects, signs of addiction and dependence, addiction treatment options, prevention tools for parents, and much more.With synthetic drugs like bath salts and synthetic marijuana, as well as other emerging drugs, becoming increasingly available and harder to regulate, what are the basic facts we need to know? In this Get Smart Quick Guide, expert resources and information come together in an engaging and accessible e-book short. Topics include:What synthetic drugs are and why they’re so difficult for healthcare professionals and authorities to identify and regulateThe history of their use and abuseChanging cultural, social, and legal factorsDefinitions of use, abuse, and dependence, with information on prevention and advice for parentsHow the drugs work, including their health effects and what makes them so addictiveIntervention and effective treatment methodsRelapse prevention tools for recovering dependents and addicts

Development of a New Analytical Method for Separation and Quantitative Determination of Synthetic Cathinones in Urine Using Gas Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry

Development of a New Analytical Method for Separation and Quantitative Determination of Synthetic Cathinones in Urine Using Gas Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry
Author: Anonim
Pages: 166
ISBN: OCLC:1137491309
Available:
Release: 2019
Editor: Unknown
Language: en

Explanation of the Book:

This thesis is concerned with a new class of drugs known as synthetic cathinones, which overruns the drug markets in recent years as “legal highs” drugs, under different commercial names such as bath salts. All synthetic cathinone derivatives consist of a chiral center and usually sold out as a racemic mixture. Usually, one of the two enantiomers will have stronger central nervous system (CNS) stimulatory activity and the other one may have no significant CNS activity or addictive properties. A new sensitive and selective analytical method was developed for the simultaneous determination of ten synthetic cathinones enantiomers in spiked urine samples by gas chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry GCNCI- MS/MS. Multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode was used for synthetic cathinones enantiomers identification and quantification in the presence of 3-MMC as an internal standard. The method adopted the indirect chiral separation of the synthetic cathinone enantiomers using methyl chloroformate (MCF) as the chiral derivatizing agent (CDA).Solid-phase extraction (SPE) was used for urine samples clean up followed by derivatization step using MCF prior to gas chromatography analysis. The developed method was validated in terms of linearity, sensitivity, intraday and interday reproducibility, and recovery for all tested spiked urine samples. The method showed linearity and good correlation coefficient (R2) values higher than 0.98 within the tested range of 0.5 to 50 ppm for all synthetic cathinones enantiomers spiked in the urine. The limits of quantitation in urine were 0.012 – 9.536 ppm and for limits of detection was 0.004 – 3.147 ppm. For reproducibility, the mean value of the coefficient of variance was below 12.3%. The mean recovery error was below 12%.The developed method can be used in forensic laboratories for separation and quantitative determination of synthetic cathinones enantiomers in urine samples. The separated and quantified enantiomers can provide information regarding the sources of these drugs and the raw materials used to create them to help law enforcement agencies with drug tracking.

Neuropharmacology of New Psychoactive Substances NPS

Neuropharmacology of New Psychoactive Substances  NPS
Author: Michael H. Baumann,Richard A. Glennon,Jenny L. Wiley
Pages: 380
ISBN: 9783319524443
Available:
Release: 2017-04-13
Editor: Springer
Language: en

Explanation of the Book:

Designer drugs, or new psychoactive substances (NPS), are synthetic chemicals that mimic the effects of classic drugs of abuse. There has been an alarming worldwide increase in the abuse of NPS in recent years. NPS are cheap, easy to obtain, and often legally available. In this volume, leading experts summarize the latest studies regarding the molecular mechanisms of action, behavioral effects, and adverse consequences of popular NPS. Specific chapters clarify the differences between various types of NPS, namely: stimulants, cannabinoids and hallucinogens. Thus, this volume broadens our understanding of NPS and provides insight into the rapidly evolving “new drug” phenomenon.

BEHAVIORAL CHARACTERIZATION OF SUBSTITUTED AMPHETAMINES AND THEIR SYNTHETIC CATHINONE ANALOGUES IN THE RUSTY CRAYFISH ORCONECTES RUSTICUS

BEHAVIORAL CHARACTERIZATION OF SUBSTITUTED AMPHETAMINES AND THEIR SYNTHETIC CATHINONE ANALOGUES IN THE RUSTY CRAYFISH  ORCONECTES RUSTICUS
Author: Sayali Vilas Gore
Pages: 102
ISBN: OCLC:1015892734
Available:
Release: 2017
Editor: Unknown
Language: en

Explanation of the Book:

The functional and evolutionary conservation of neural circuits of reward is an essential component of survival. Drugs of abuse are known to "hijack" natural reward systems to produce their euphoric and reinforcing effects. Recently, synthetic cathinones have gained popularity among the drug users due to low cost, potency and widespread availability resulting from unclear legal regulatory status. Sharing a chemical structure with amphetamines, synthetic cathinones are likely to pose a significant public health threat. Even though synthetic cathinones have been in use for over a decade, the neuropharmacology, behavioral and physiological effects still remain obscure. This gap in knowledge needs to be urgently addressed in order to understand the basic pharmacological effects, development of treatment/therapy against synthetic cathinone addiction and to define a consistent legal framework to assure regulatory control. Due to the ease of experimental manipulations, modularly organized nervous system, absence of blood-brain barrier and well-characterized behavioral paradigms for drug addiction-like behaviors, crayfish continues to be an ideal model to study the addictive potential of any drug. With highly stereotyped behaviors, and a modularly organized nervous system, crustaceans offer productive research models to study proximate mechanisms of a wide range of behavioral phenomena. The current project has harnessed the advantages of this model system to investigate the behavioral effects of synthetic cathinone in comparison to known stimulants: 4-methylmethamphetamine (4-MMA) vs. mephedrone and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) vs. methylone. We explored the unconditioned behavioral effects, locomotor activity, sensitization of locomotor response, reward potential and termination effects of the above mentioned drugs at doses of 1, 3, and 10 μg/g. Our results show that all the drugs generate significant locomotor effects in crayfish. When crayfish were exposed to these drugs for the first time, increase in locomotion was seen over a brief period of time which faded eventually over the course of trial. Our study indicates that apart from already known exploratory behaviors, unique unconditioned behaviors such as claw waving and circling are observed following drug injections. Typically, these drugs were able to produce psychostimulation at lower doses (1 μg/g) where as depression of locomotion was seen at higher doses (10 μg/g). Initial exposure of these drugs increased locomotion during the infusion itself while repeated drug injections produced psychostimulation that lasted for longer durations. Using the conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm, we demonstrated that crayfish seek out a particular tactile environment that had previously been paired with the drug. All the drugs at 10 μg/g show preference for the substrate which was paired with the drug. Furthermore, the preference for drug-paired environment persists even after the extinction pairing sessions (when the initially drug-paired compartment was paired with saline). We also investigated the termination effects of the drug to pinpoint withdrawal like behaviors. Termination of drug resulted in production of withdrawal-like behaviors and significant differences in locomotion. This study demonstrates that crayfish offer a comparative and complementary approach in addiction research. The current study contributes an evolutionary context to our understanding of a key component in learning and of natural reward as an important life-sustaining process.

Concomitant Use of Synthetic Cathinones in Opioid dependent Patients Receiving Opioid Maintenance Treatment

Concomitant Use of Synthetic Cathinones in Opioid dependent Patients Receiving Opioid Maintenance Treatment
Author: Verena Pietzschmann
Pages: 329
ISBN: OCLC:1226697653
Available:
Release: 2018
Editor: Unknown
Language: en

Explanation of the Book:

Developing an Effective Treatment Algorithm for Synthetic Cathinone Reactions for the Antigo Fire Department

Developing an Effective Treatment Algorithm for Synthetic Cathinone Reactions for the Antigo Fire Department
Author: Anonim
Pages: 65
ISBN: OCLC:911726464
Available:
Release: 2014
Editor: Unknown
Language: en

Explanation of the Book:

The problem was the Antigo fire Department (AFD) does not have a standardized treatment plan for the treatment of the acute synthetic cathinone (SC) reaction. The purpose of this research was to develop a treatment algorithm for the AFD to effectively treat the patient having an acute SC medication reaction. Synthetic cathinones include: methylenedioxypyrovalerone {MDPV),mephedrone, and methylone. The abuse in Langlade County {LC) is mainly MDPV, which is commonly called "Bath Salts". LC and AFD have seen a marked increase in the misuse of SCs throughout the county. AFD used the combative patient protocols to treat to SC abuse patient and that protocol is a treatment that treats agitation and combativeness but is not seeded in vetted research.

Improved Detection of Synthetic Cathinones in Forensic Toxicology Samples

Improved Detection of Synthetic Cathinones in Forensic Toxicology Samples
Author: Sarah Kerrigan
Pages: 122
ISBN: OCLC:936445732
Available:
Release: 2015
Editor: Unknown
Language: en

Explanation of the Book: