State Organized Terror

State Organized Terror
Author: P. Timothy Bushnell
Pages: 312
ISBN: 0429307446
Available:
Release: 2019
Editor: Unknown
Language: en

Explanation of the Book:

State Organized Terror

State Organized Terror
Author: P Timothy Bushnell,Vladimir Shlapentokh,Christopher Vanderpool,Jeyaratnam Sundram
Pages: 312
ISBN: 0367304155
Available:
Release: 2021-06-02
Editor: Routledge
Language: en

Explanation of the Book:

This book, an outcome of an international conference entitled "State Organized Terror: The Case of Violent Internal Repression", addresses the antecedent structural factors conducive to state organized terror and provides insights into the political and social psychology of state terror.

State Organized Terror

State Organized Terror
Author: P. Timothy Bushnell,Vladimir Shlapentokh,Christopher Vanderpool,Jeyaratnam Sundram
Pages: 312
ISBN: 9781000313055
Available:
Release: 2019-07-18
Editor: Routledge
Language: en

Explanation of the Book:

This book, an outcome of an international conference entitled "State Organized Terror: The Case of Violent Internal Repression", addresses the antecedent structural factors conducive to state organized terror and provides insights into the political and social psychology of state terror.

State Organized Terror

State Organized Terror
Author: Vladimir Shlapentokh,Christopher Vanderpool,Jeyaratnam Sundram,John Mccamant
Pages: 312
ISBN: UOM:39015022022944
Available:
Release: 1991-10-17
Editor: Westview Press
Language: en

Explanation of the Book:

The use of terror by governments against their own citizens is treated in this volume as a phenomenon manifesting itself in both right and left wing political regimes and in widely varying social contexts. This book aims for a cross-cultural, multidisciplinary understanding of repression.

State Organized Terror

State Organized Terror
Author: Vladimir Shlapentokh,Christopher K. Vanderpool,Tim Bushnell
Pages: 97
ISBN: OCLC:20214843
Available:
Release: 1989
Editor: Unknown
Language: en

Explanation of the Book:

Criminals and Terrorists in Partnership

Criminals and Terrorists in Partnership
Author: Helena Carrapico,Daniela Irrera,Bill Tupman
Pages: 176
ISBN: 9781317389828
Available:
Release: 2017-10-02
Editor: Routledge
Language: en

Explanation of the Book:

The nexus between terrorism and organised crime consists of a strategic alliance between two non-state actors who are able to exploit illegal markets, threaten the security of individuals, and influence policy-making on a global level. Recent Europol reports have pointed towards the importance of studying the links between organised crime and terrorist groups, and have underlined that the nature and extent of these connections have seldom been addressed from an academic perspective. Considering the danger that both organised crime and terrorism currently pose to the world, the collusion between these two phenomena is of urgent contemporary interest. Basing itself on geographical case-studies, this book contributes to the existing literature in three ways: by enriching the empirical knowledge on the nature of the crime-terror nexus and its evolution; by exploring the impact of the nexus within different economic, political and societal contexts; and by expanding on its theoretical conceptualization. This book was originally published as a special issue of Global Crime.

Crime and Terrorism

Crime and Terrorism
Author: Peter N. Grabosky,Peter Grabosky,Michael Stohl
Pages: 146
ISBN: 9781849200325
Available:
Release: 2010-10-05
Editor: SAGE Publications
Language: en

Explanation of the Book:

High quality, compelling criminology text on terrrorism - much needed in the market.

Crime Terror Nexus in South Asia

Crime Terror Nexus in South Asia
Author: Ryan Clarke
Pages: 232
ISBN: 9781136739705
Available:
Release: 2011-04-12
Editor: Taylor & Francis
Language: en

Explanation of the Book:

This book examines the crime-terror nexus in South Asia, focusing in particular on the activities of non-state actors that operate out of Pakistan, and challenges the conventional wisdom that the Pakistan Taleban (TTP) and Al-Qaeda are Pakistan’s most serious security threats.

Webs of Corruption

Webs of Corruption
Author: Mariya Omelicheva,Lawrence Markowitz
Pages: 329
ISBN: 9780231547918
Available:
Release: 2019-05-21
Editor: Columbia University Press
Language: en

Explanation of the Book:

Counterterrorism experts and policy makers have warned of the peril posed by the links between violent extremism and organized crime, especially the relationship between drug trafficking and terrorism funding. Yet Central Asia, the site of extensive opium trafficking, sees low levels of terrorist violence. Webs of Corruption is an innovative study demonstrating that terrorist and criminal activity intersect more narrowly than is widely believed—and that the state plays the pivotal role in shaping those interconnections. Mariya Y. Omelicheva and Lawrence P. Markowitz analyze the linkages between the drug trade and terrorism financing in Central Asia, finding that state security services shape the nexus of trafficking and terrorism. While organized crime and terrorism do intersect in parts of the region, profit-driven criminal organizations and politically motivated violent groups come together based on the nature of state involvement. Governments in high-trafficking regions are drawn into illicit economies and forge relationships with a range of nonstate violent actors, such as insurgents, erstwhile regime opponents, and transnational groups. Omelicheva and Markowitz contend that these relationships can mitigate terrorism—by redirecting these actors toward other forms of violence. Offering a groundbreaking combination of quantitative, qualitative, and geographic information systems methods to map trafficking/terrorism connections on the ground, Webs of Corruption provides a meticulously researched, counterintuitive perspective on a potent regional security problem.

The Third Chimurenga

The Third Chimurenga
Author: Heather Nicole Holtzclaw
Pages: 594
ISBN: MSU:31293025044730
Available:
Release: 2004
Editor: Unknown
Language: en

Explanation of the Book:

Crime terror Alliances and the State

Crime terror Alliances and the State
Author: Lyubov Grigorova Mincheva,Lyubov Grigorova,Ted Robert Gurr
Pages: 234
ISBN: 9780415506489
Available:
Release: 2012-12-07
Editor: Routledge
Language: en

Explanation of the Book:

This new book by Lyubov Mincheva and Ted Gurr examines the political economy of transborder violence on the European Periphery that poses grave threats to domestic and international security in Europe and elsewhere. The units of analysis are unholy alliances, i.e. hybrid transborder militant and criminal networks, which have been active in the 1990s and the first decade of the 2000s. The concept of Unholy Alliances is extended to also include the trans-state criminal syndicates that arise in failed and dysfunctional states, or operate within the global illicit economy. It also addresses the question of what reigns supreme in securing the militants' long term success: money; or social endowment, including strong identity networks

When States Kill

When States Kill
Author: Cecilia Menjívar,Néstor Rodríguez
Pages: 388
ISBN: 9780292778504
Available:
Release: 2009-07-21
Editor: University of Texas Press
Language: en

Explanation of the Book:

Since the early twentieth century, technological transfers from the United States to Latin American countries have involved technologies of violence for social control. As the chapters in this book illustrate, these technological transfers have taken various forms, including the training of Latin American military personnel in surveillance and torture and the provision of political and logistic support for campaigns of state terror. The human cost for Latin America has been enormous—thousands of Latin Americans have been murdered, disappeared, or tortured, and whole communities have been terrorized into silence. Organized by region, the essays in this book address the topic of state-sponsored terrorism in a variety of ways. Most take the perspective that state-directed political violence is a modern development of a regional political structure in which U.S. political interests weigh heavily. Others acknowledge that Latin American states enthusiastically received U.S. support for their campaigns of terror. A few see local culture and history as key factors in the implementation of state campaigns of political violence. Together, all the essays exemplify how technologies of terror have been transferred among various Latin American countries, with particular attention to the role that the United States, as a "strong" state, has played in such transfers.

The 9 11 Commission Report

The 9 11 Commission Report
Author: National Commission O Terrorist Attacks
Pages: 588
ISBN: 9781616402198
Available:
Release: 2010-01-01
Editor: Cosimo, Inc.
Language: en

Explanation of the Book:

It has, improbably, been called uncommonly lucid, even riveting by The New York Times, and it was a finalist for the 2004 National Book Awards nonfiction honor. It is a literally chilling read, especially in its minute-by-minute description of the events of the morning of 9/11 inside the Twin Towers.It is The 9/11 Commission Report, which was, before its publication, perhaps one of the most anticipated government reports of all time, and has been since an unlikely bestseller. The official statement by the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States-which was instituted in late 2002 and chaired by former New Jersey Governor Thomas Kean-it details what went wrong on that day (such as intelligence failures), what went right (the heroic response of emergency services and self-organizing civilians), and how to avert similar future attacks.Highlighting evidence from the day, from airport surveillance footage of the terrorists to phone calls from the doomed flights, and offering details that have otherwise gone unheard, this is an astonishing firsthand document of contemporary history. While controversial in parts-it has been criticized for failing to include testimony from key individuals, and it completely omits any mention of the mysterious collapse of WTC 7-it is nevertheless an essential record of one of the most transformational events of modern times.

War and State Terrorism

War and State Terrorism
Author: Mark Selden,Alvin Y. So
Pages: 293
ISBN: 0742523918
Available:
Release: 2004
Editor: Rowman & Littlefield
Language: en

Explanation of the Book:

Tracing the course of conflicts throughout Asia in the past century, this groundbreaking volume is the first to explore systematically the nexus of war and state terrorism. Challenging states' definitions of terrorism, which routinely exclude their own behavior, the book focuses especially on the nature of Japanese and American wars and crimes of war. This rare comparative perspective examines the ways in which state terror leads to civilian casualties, war crimes, and crimes against humanity. In counterbalance, they discuss anti-war movements and international efforts to protect human rights. This interdisciplinary volume will resonate with readers searching for a deeper understanding of an era dominated by war and terror.

Truth Commissions

Truth Commissions
Author: Greg Grandin,Thomas Miller Klubock
Pages: 179
ISBN: 0822366746
Available:
Release: 2007
Editor: Duke University Press
Language: en

Explanation of the Book:

This special issue of Radical History Review looks at the different kinds of history produced by truth commissions organized to investigate political violence, state terror, and human rights violations around the globe and examines how these histories elide or confront social inequality and political violence. The essays consider the tensions implicit in the multiple mandates of truth commissions: to establish historical truths, to recognize the experiences of victims, to effect social and political reconciliation, and to reestablish the legitimacy of the nation-state at a time of market-driven globalization. The issue also addresses difficulties faced by the commissions, such as limitations on the use and nature of evidence, oral testimony, and archival documentation. Comparative in nature, this collection includes essays on Chile's long history of amnesties, pardons, and commissions organized to uncover past episodes of political violence; the dissemination and use of the historical findings of the Guatemalan Commission for Historical Clarification; and internal tensions in the South African Truth and Reconciliation Commission, which sought to recover the memories of the victims of apartheid. Several shorter essays offer reflections on U.S. commissions related to the country's history of racial violence, Cold War imperialism, and Vietnam War atrocities and on the findings of the 9/11 Commission report. Contributors. Felipe Aguero, Sally Avery Bermanzohn, Alejandro Castillejo-Cuellar, Grant Farred, John J. Fitzgerald, Greg Grandin, Thomas Miller Klubock, Elizabeth Lira, Brian Loveman, Mary Nolan, Elizabeth Ogelsby, Paul Ortiz, Kimberly Phillips-Fein, Charles Walker

National Counter Terrorism Strategies

National Counter Terrorism Strategies
Author: R.W. Orttung,A. Makarychev
Pages: 224
ISBN: 9781607502159
Available:
Release: 2006-12-19
Editor: IOS Press
Language: en

Explanation of the Book:

National Counter-Terrorism Strategies provides an in-depth analyses of terrorism trends and responses in the US, UK, France, Turkey and Russia. The contributors are scholars and operational people from each of the countries. They contribute to the existing literature on terrorism by analyzing their countries’ response to the terror-organized crime nexus, coordination of state agencies fighting terrorism, and ability to manage trade-offs between protecting civil liberties and ensuring security. The book makes an important contribution by providing a comparative analysis of the various national responses to terrorism, showing where individual countries excel and lag behind. These analyses seek to provide the basis for improving the counter-terrorism approaches for each of the countries. The introductory chapters provide an analysis of current trends in terrorism today from a variety of different national perspectives. The different approaches and points of view allow the reader to gain a more nuanced understanding of terrorism and the current efforts to combat it.

Risky Business

Risky Business
Author: Combating Terrorism Combating Terrorism Center at West Point
Pages: 88
ISBN: 1511572078
Available:
Release: 2015-04-03
Editor: CreateSpace
Language: en

Explanation of the Book:

This study looks at the interrelationship between illicit activity in the economic and political arenas. It offers a different perspective on the global illicit marketplace and the connectivity between crime and terror through examining the relationships of those who produce and profit from fear for financial or political purposes. Looking across a range of illicit activities that include terrorism, the illegal narcotics trade, organized crime, human smuggling and political corruption, the network analysis includes 2,700 individuals linked by 15,000 relationships spanning 122 countries. Conventional wisdom suggests that criminal-terrorist connectivity is a phenomenon found in failed and economically poor states. This argument relies on four assumptions: (1) poor economic conditions drive people into the illicit sectors; (2) criminal and terrorist actors are more likely to thrive in environments with weak governments and poverty; (3) because it is easy for terrorist and criminals to cooperate, they will; (4) governmental and illicit actors are adversaries. The results of this study suggest that there is good reason to question each of these assumptions and in turn to revisit the fundamental empirical data relating to and explanations of crime-terror connectivity. This large-scale data analysis, in some ways the first of its kind, offers a number of conclusions: The criminals and terrorists are largely subsumed (98%) in a single network as opposed to operating in numerous smaller networks. Connectivity among actors within the illicit marketplace is relatively high. This should not be construed to say that the network is a cohesive organizational entity. The phenomenon observed and documented here is a self-organizing complex system built through social connections from the bottom up. By most measures of connectivity, terrorists are more central than almost all other types of criminals, second only to narcotics smugglers. The transnational nature of terrorist actors allows them to link disparate criminal groups. It does not appear that terrorists are shunned based on social norms or fear of inviting retribution from law enforcement, as many criminals seem willing to interact with terrorists. An empirical analysis of the network shows that 46% of terrorists' connections are linked to actors involved in activities other than terrorism, while those involved in other illicit activities link to terrorists 35% of the time. Almost half of those in the network were not directly identified as being criminals or terrorists but were suspected for involvement in illicit activities. The prominence of these peripheral actors may reflect the importance of operating across the licit and the illicit spheres. The conventional wisdom that explains crime-terror connectivity as a product of failed or economically poor states is challenged here. Just because it is easy for criminals and terrorists to work together does not necessarily explain why they would. Three additional explanations are considered: the comparative advantage among criminals and terrorists in capable states, state sponsorship to augment state weaknesses and revolutionary state behavior. Generally speaking, connectivity between terrorists and criminals is highest in resource-rich countries that have little incentive to support substate actors (comparative advantage theory) and resource-poor countries that are incentivized to support criminal or terrorist groups (augment state capabilities theory).

State of Corruption State of Chaos

State of Corruption  State of Chaos
Author: Michaelene Cox
Pages: 201
ISBN: 0739123882
Available:
Release: 2008
Editor: Lexington Books
Language: en

Explanation of the Book:

State of Corruption, State of Chaos provides a base of knowledge upon which critical analyses on the nature and causes of violence can draw. Studies in this volume were selected for their unique contributions to the rich and growing literature on corruption and conflict.

The Oxford Handbook of Terrorism

The Oxford Handbook of Terrorism
Author: Erica Chenoweth,Richard English,Andreas Gofas,Stathis N. Kalyvas
Pages: 704
ISBN: 9780191047138
Available:
Release: 2019-03-14
Editor: Oxford University Press
Language: en

Explanation of the Book:

The Oxford Handbook of Terrorism systematically integrates the substantial body of scholarship on terrorism and counterterrorism before and after 9/11. In doing so, it introduces scholars and practitioners to state of the art approaches, methods, and issues in studying and teaching these vital phenomena. This Handbook goes further than most existing collections by giving structure and direction to the fast-growing but somewhat disjointed field of terrorism studies. The volume locates terrorism within the wider spectrum of political violence instead of engaging in the widespread tendency towards treating terrorism as an exceptional act. Moreover, the volume makes a case for studying terrorism within its socio-historical context. Finally, the volume addresses the critique that the study of terrorism suffers from lack of theory by reviewing and extending the theoretical insights contributed by several fields - including political science, political economy, history, sociology, anthropology, criminology, law, geography, and psychology. In doing so, the volume showcases the analytical advancements and reflects on the challenges that remain since the emergence of the field in the early 1970s.

State Terrorism in Iran

State Terrorism in Iran
Author: Nauzanin a Knight
Pages: 110
ISBN: 9781612334349
Available:
Release: 2015-07-01
Editor: Universal-Publishers
Language: en

Explanation of the Book:

State terrorism, as a concept, has largely been operationalised out of terrorism literature. When a state uses violence systematically against unarmed victims, with the purpose of generating fear and communicating a message to a group beyond the immediate victims, this steps outside the bounds of legitimate use of violence. The Islamic Republic of Iran (IRI) has engaged in such acts of violence against the Baha'i community in that country. In this study, a working model of state terrorism is devised and the following central research question is addressed: do the strategy and tactics utilized by the IRI and/or its proxies against Iranian Baha'is constitute state terrorism? This qualitative study adopts a Mixed Approach Design. Eighteen Iranian Baha'i and non-Baha'i emigrants were purposively sampled and interviewed. In-depth interview data was triangulated and validated using structured data sources. Data analysis drew on the systematic-combining approach (Dubois & Gadde, 2002) whereby the original theoretical frame weighed against emergent findings. This exploratory study produces empirical evidence to suggest that Iran is a terrorist state: Iranian Baha'is are subjected to acts and/or threats of violence stemming from the state or its surrogates; the responsibility to protect norm is not applied to Baha'is; and, the IRI tries to invoke fear in and beyond the Iranian population to isolate and silence Baha'is. State terrorism claims many more victims than insurgent terrorism, yet the former concept is seldom mentioned in terrorism studies (Stohl, 2008). The onus is on researchers to identify cases of state terrorists and hold the perpetrators to account at the international level. A special case can be made, based on the empirical evidence, for the creation of an international convention on state terrorism that would hold state governments, like the IRI, responsible for carrying out terroristic acts of violence against segments of their population."