Editorial Bacterial surface glycans as the virulence agent and the target for predators therapy and the immune system

Editorial  Bacterial surface glycans as the virulence agent and the target for predators  therapy  and the immune system
Author: Zuzanna Drulis-Kawa,Felipe Cava
Pages: 329
ISBN: 9782889664498
Available:
Release: 2021-02-03
Editor: Frontiers Media SA
Language: en

Explanation of the Book:

Hurdles for Phage Therapy PT to Become a Reality

Hurdles for Phage Therapy  PT  to Become a Reality
Author: Harald Brüssow
Pages: 484
ISBN: 9783039213917
Available:
Release: 2019-08-20
Editor: MDPI
Language: en

Explanation of the Book:

Alternative treatment modes for antibiotic-resistant bacterial pathogens have become a public health priority. Bacteriophages are bacterial viruses that infect and lyse bacterial cells. Since bacteriophages are frequently bacterial host species-specific and can often also infect antibiotic-resistant bacterial cells, they could represent ideal antimicrobials for fighting the antibiotic resistance crisis. The medical use of bacteriophages has become known as phage therapy. It is widely used in Russia, where phage cocktails are sold in pharmacies as an over-the-counter drug. However, no phage product has been registered for medical purposes outside of the former Soviet Union. The current Special Issue of Viruses contains a collection of papers from opinion leaders in the field who explore hurdles to the introduction of phage therapy in western countries. The articles cover diverse topics ranging from patent to regulatory issues, the targeting of suitable bacterial infections, and the selection and characterization of safe and efficient phage cocktails. Phage resistance is discussed, and gaps in our knowledge of phage–bacterium interactions in the mammalian body are revealed, while other articles explore the use of phages in food production and processing.

Implication of Quorum Sensing System in Biofilm Formation and Virulence

Implication of Quorum Sensing System in Biofilm Formation and Virulence
Author: Pallaval Veera Bramhachari
Pages: 381
ISBN: 9789811324291
Available:
Release: 2019-01-28
Editor: Springer
Language: en

Explanation of the Book:

This book illustrates the importance and significance of Quorum sensing (QS), it’s critical roles in regulating diverse cellular functions in microbes, including bioluminescence, virulence, pathogenesis, gene expression, biofilm formation and antibiotic resistance. Microbes can coordinate population behavior with small molecules called autoinducers (AHL) which serves as a signal of cellular population density, triggering new patterns of gene expression for mounting virulence and pathogenesis. Therefore, these microbes have the competence to coordinate and regulate explicit sets of genes by sensing and communicating amongst themselves utilizing variety of signals. This book descry emphasizes on how bacteria can coordinate an activity and synchronize their response to external signals and regulate gene expression. The chapters of the book provide the recent advancements on various functional aspects of QS systems in different gram positive and gram negative organisms. Finally, the book also elucidates a comprehensive yet a representative description of a large number of challenges associated with quorum sensing signal molecules viz. virulence, pathogenesis, antibiotic synthesis, biosurfactants production, persister cells, cell signaling and biofilms, intra and inter-species communications, host-pathogen interactions, social interactions & swarming migration in biofilms.

PrPSc Prions State of the Art

PrPSc Prions  State of the Art
Author: Joaquín Castilla,Jesús R. Requena
Pages: 210
ISBN: 9783038973089
Available:
Release: 2018-11-07
Editor: MDPI
Language: en

Explanation of the Book:

This book is a printed edition of the Special Issue "PrPSc prions: state of the art" that was published in Pathogens

Virus Taxonomy

Virus Taxonomy
Author: Andrew M.Q. King,Michael J. Adams,Elliot J. Lefkowitz
Pages: 1327
ISBN: 9780123846846
Available:
Release: 2011
Editor: Elsevier
Language: en

Explanation of the Book:

The practical need to partition the world of viruses into distinguishable, universally agreed upon entities is the ultimate justification for developing a virus classification system. Since 1971, the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) operating on behalf of the world community of virologists has taken on the task of developing a single, universal taxonomic scheme for all viruses infecting animals (vertebrate, invertebrates, and protozoa), plants (higher plants and algae), fungi, bacteria, and archaea. The current report builds on the accumulated taxonomic construction of the eight previous reports dating back to 1971 and records the proceedings of the Committee since publication of the last report in 2005. Representing the work of more than 500 virologists worldwide, this report is the authoritative reference for virus organization, distinction, and structure.

The Science and Applications of Microbial Genomics

The Science and Applications of Microbial Genomics
Author: Institute of Medicine,Board on Global Health,Forum on Microbial Threats
Pages: 428
ISBN: 9780309268196
Available:
Release: 2013-05-02
Editor: National Academies Press
Language: en

Explanation of the Book:

Over the past several decades, new scientific tools and approaches for detecting microbial species have dramatically enhanced our appreciation of the diversity and abundance of the microbiota and its dynamic interactions with the environments within which these microorganisms reside. The first bacterial genome was sequenced in 1995 and took more than 13 months of work to complete. Today, a microorganism's entire genome can be sequenced in a few days. Much as our view of the cosmos was forever altered in the 17th century with the invention of the telescope, these genomic technologies, and the observations derived from them, have fundamentally transformed our appreciation of the microbial world around us. On June 12 and 13, 2012, the Institute of Medicine's (IOM's) Forum on Microbial Threats convened a public workshop in Washington, DC, to discuss the scientific tools and approaches being used for detecting and characterizing microbial species, and the roles of microbial genomics and metagenomics to better understand the culturable and unculturable microbial world around us. Through invited presentations and discussions, participants examined the use of microbial genomics to explore the diversity, evolution, and adaptation of microorganisms in a wide variety of environments; the molecular mechanisms of disease emergence and epidemiology; and the ways that genomic technologies are being applied to disease outbreak trace back and microbial surveillance. Points that were emphasized by many participants included the need to develop robust standardized sampling protocols, the importance of having the appropriate metadata, data analysis and data management challenges, and information sharing in real time. The Science and Applications of Microbial Genomics summarizes this workshop.

A Photographic Atlas for the Microbiology Laboratory

A Photographic Atlas for the Microbiology Laboratory
Author: Michael J. Leboffe,Burton E. Pierce
Pages: 264
ISBN: 9781617310072
Available:
Release: 2012-01-01
Editor: Morton Publishing Company
Language: en

Explanation of the Book:

Intended to act as a supplement to introductory microbiology laboratory manuals. This full-color atlas can also be used in conjunction with your own custom laboratory manual.

Biological Potential and Medical Use of Secondary Metabolites

Biological Potential and Medical Use of Secondary Metabolites
Author: Ana M. L Seca,Diana Cláudia Pinto
Pages: 284
ISBN: 9783039211876
Available:
Release: 2019-07-26
Editor: MDPI
Language: en

Explanation of the Book:

Many macro and micro species, from terrestrial and aquatic environments, produce structurally unique compounds and, in many countries, still are the primary sources of medicines. In fact, secondary metabolites are an important source of chemotherapeutic agents but are also lead compounds for synthetic modification and the optimization of biological activity. Therefore, the exploitation of secondary metabolites, or their inspired synthetic compounds, offers excellent opportunities for the pharmaceutical industry. This Medicines Special Issue focuses on the great potential of secondary metabolites for therapeutic application. The Special Issue contains 16 articles reporting relevant experimental results, and an overview of bioactive secondary metabolites, their biological effects, and new methodologies that improve and accelerate the process of obtained lead compounds with regard to new drug development. We would like to thank all 83 authors, from all over the world, for their valuable contributions to this Special Issue.

The Connections Between Ecology and Infectious Disease

The Connections Between Ecology and Infectious Disease
Author: Christon J. Hurst
Pages: 317
ISBN: 9783319923734
Available:
Release: 2018-08-30
Editor: Springer
Language: en

Explanation of the Book:

This book summarizes current advances in our understanding of how infectious disease represents an ecological interaction between a pathogenic microorganism and the host species in which that microbe causes illness. The contributing authors explain that pathogenic microorganisms often also have broader ecological connections, which can include a natural environmental presence; possible transmission by vehicles such as air, water, and food; and interactions with other host species, including vectors for which the microbe either may or may not be pathogenic. This field of science has been dubbed disease ecology, and the chapters that examine it have been grouped into three sections. The first section introduces both the role of biological community interactions and the impact of biodiversity on infectious disease. In turn, the second section considers those diseases directly affecting humans, with a focus on waterborne and foodborne illnesses, while also examining the critical aspect of microbial biofilms. Lastly, the third section presents the ecology of infectious diseases from the perspective of their impact on mammalian livestock and wildlife as well as on humans. Given its breadth of coverage, the volume offers a valuable resource for microbial ecologists and biomedical scientists alike.

Gram positive phages From isolation to application

Gram positive phages  From isolation to application
Author: Jennifer Mahony,Douwe van Sinderen
Pages: 329
ISBN: 9782889194933
Available:
Release: 2015-05-15
Editor: Frontiers Media SA
Language: en

Explanation of the Book:

Phage biology is one of the most significant and fundamental aspects of biological research and is often used as a platform for model studies relating to more complex biological entities. For this reason, phage biology has enjoyed focused attention and significant advances have been made in the areas of phage genomics, transcriptomics and the development and characterisation of phage-resistance mechanisms. In recent years, considerable research has been performed to increase our understanding of the interactions of these phages with their hosts using genomic, biochemical and structural approaches. Such multidisciplinary approaches are core to developing a full understanding of the processes that govern phage infection, information that may be harnessed to develop anti-phage strategies that may be applied in food fermentations or applied in a positive sense in phage therapy applications. The co-evolutionary processes of these phages and their hosts have also been a considerable focus of research in recent years. Such data has promoted a deeper understanding of the means by which these phages attach to and infect their hosts and permitted the development of effective anti-phage strategies. Furthermore, the presence and activity of host-encoded phage-resistance systems that operate at various stages of the phage cycle and the potential for the application of such systems consolidates the value of research in this area. Conversely, phages and their components have been applied as therapeutic agents against a number of pathogens including, among others, Clostridium difficile, Lactococcus garviae, Mycobacterium spp., Listeria spp. and the possibilities and limitations of these systems will be explored in this topic. Additionally, phage therapeutic approaches have been applied to the prevention of development of food spoilage organisms in the brewing and beverage sectors and exhonorate the positive applications of phages in the industrial setting. This research topic is aimed to address the most current issues as well as the most recent advances in the research of phages infecting Gram-positive bacteria covering areas such as phages in food fermentations, their impact in industry, phage ecology, genomics, evolution, structural analysis, phage-host interactions and the application of phages and components thereof as therapeutic agents against human and animal pathogens.

Microbial Biotechnology

Microbial Biotechnology
Author: Jayanta Kumar Patra,Gitishree Das,Han-Seung Shin
Pages: 537
ISBN: 9789811071409
Available:
Release: 2018-02-14
Editor: Springer
Language: en

Explanation of the Book:

This edited book, is a collection of 25 chapters describing the recent advancements in the application of microbial technology in the food and pharmacology sector. The main focus of this book is application of microbes, food preservation techniques utilizing microbes, probiotics, seaweeds, algae, enzymatic abatement of urethane in fermentation of beverages, bioethanol production, pesticides, probiotic biosurfactants, drought tolerance, synthesis of application of oncolytic viruses in cancer treatment, microbe based metallic nanoparticles, agro chemicals, endophytes, metabolites, antibiotics etc. This book highlighted the significant aspects of the vast subject area of microbial biotechnology and their potential applications in food and pharmacology with various topics from eminent experts around the World. This book would serve as an excellent reference book for researchers and students in the Food Science, Food Biotechnology, Microbiology and Pharmaceutical fields.

Heterogeneity in Asthma

Heterogeneity in Asthma
Author: Allan R. Brasier
Pages: 354
ISBN: 9781461486039
Available:
Release: 2014-07-08
Editor: Springer Science & Business Media
Language: en

Explanation of the Book:

Asthma is a chronic relapsing airways disease that represents a major public health problem worldwide. Intermittent exacerbations are provoked by airway mucosal exposure to pro-inflammatory stimuli, with RNA viral infections or inhaled allergens representing the two most common precipitants. In this setting, inducible signaling pathways the airway mucosa play a central role in the initiation of airway inflammation through production of antimicrobial peptides (defensins), cytokines, chemokines and arachidonic acid metabolites that coordinate the complex processes of vascular permeability, cellular recruitment, mucous hyper-secretion, bronchial constriction and tissue remodeling. These signals also are responsible for leukocytic infiltration into the submucosa, T helper-lymphocyte skewing, and allergic sensitization. Currently, it is well appreciated that asthma is a heterogeneous in terms of onset, exacerbants, severity, and treatment response. Current asthma classification methods are largely descriptive and focus on a single aspect or dimension of the disease. An active area of investigation on how to collect, use and visualize multidimensional profiling in asthma. This book will overview multidimensional profiling strategies and visualization approaches for phenotyping asthma. As an outcome, this work will facilitate the understanding of disease etiology, prognosis and/or therapeutic intervention. ​

Pathogenesis of Bacterial Infections in Animals

Pathogenesis of Bacterial Infections in Animals
Author: Carlton L. Gyles,John F. Prescott,J. Glenn Songer,Charles O. Thoen
Pages: 456
ISBN: 9780470344835
Available:
Release: 2008-02-28
Editor: John Wiley & Sons
Language: en

Explanation of the Book:

This much-anticipated third edition again consolidates the knowledge of more than twenty experts on pathogenesis of animal disease caused by various species or groups of bacteria. Emphasizing pathogenic events at the molecular and cellular levels, the editors and contributors place these developments in the context of the overall picture of disease. Pathogenesis of Bacterial Infections in Animals, Third edition, updates and expands the content of the second edition and includes cutting-edge information from the most current research. Comments on previous editions: "...highly recommended." --The Veterinary Record "...a comprehensive, complete and easy-to-use source of information." --Veterinary Microbiology "...recommended for graduate students and specialists in microbiology, pathology and infectious disease." --U.S. Animal Health Association Newsletter "...a wonderful book." --Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association "...highly recommended." --The Cornell Veterinarian Graduate students, faculty, researchers, and specialists in microbiology, pathology, and infectious diseases will benefit from this highly-detailed and expanded edition of a popular and well-read veterinary text.

Ecology and Animal Health

Ecology and Animal Health
Author: Jeffrey M. Levengood,Leif Norrgren
Pages: 382
ISBN: 9789186189129
Available:
Release: 2012-10-28
Editor: Baltic University Press
Language: en

Explanation of the Book:

Cell Function and Disease

Cell Function and Disease
Author: L. Canedo
Pages: 524
ISBN: 9781461308133
Available:
Release: 2012-12-06
Editor: Springer Science & Business Media
Language: en

Explanation of the Book:

The new experimental tools and approaches of modern biology have allowed us to better understand many fundamental properties of the eukaryotic cells. These significant discoveries have drastically changed the diagnostic and therapeutic approaches of modern clinical practice. On April 18-22, 1988, an International Symposium on Cell Function and Disease was held in Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico, aimed at reviewing some of the most recent advances made in the following five areas: Genes and Human Diseases; Cellular and Molecular Pathology; Infectious Diseases; Brain Transplants and the New Approaches and Techniques with Potential Application to Cell Function and Disease. This book is based on the contributed papers of the symposium. To underline the importance of the clinical approach to the study of cell function and disease a section on this subject was added at the end of the book. The chapters in this volume include contributions by some of the leading scientists of the international scientific community and Mexico. During the course of this international conference, numerous discussions were held by the local and international representatives of the scientific community concerning the creation of an International Center of Molecular Medicine aimed at stimulating further interaction between molecular biologists, biochemists, biophyscists and clinicians. Such ideas received the endorsement and support of the Director General of the united Nations Educational and Scientific Organization (UNESCO), Federico Mayor, the Governor of the State of Nuevo Leon, Jorge Trevino, and the Secretary of Health of Mexico, Guillermo Soberon.

Fungal Physiology and Immunopathogenesis

Fungal Physiology and Immunopathogenesis
Author: Marcio L. Rodrigues
Pages: 301
ISBN: 9783030302375
Available:
Release: 2019-09-03
Editor: Springer Nature
Language: en

Explanation of the Book:

This volume offers an overview of the various aspects involved in the ability of fungi to damage host cells, and discusses cutting-edge approaches to the study of fungal pathogenesis. The first chapter illustrate the key roles of glycans and pigments, the most abundant surface components in fungal cells, in their interactions with host cells. The connections between cellular physiology and fungal pathogenesis are then discussed in the following chapters. Physiology-related processes affecting pathogenesis include fungal secretion, morphological transitions, and response to light. In turn, the book illustrates mechanisms of damage to host cells using the Histoplasma capsulatum model of infection, and reviews the use of transcriptomic approaches to understand the mechanisms of interaction between fungal cells and host tissues. After a discussion of the immunological mechanisms underlying host susceptibility to fungal infections, the book’s closing contribution reviews the mechanisms of interaction between fungi and other microbes, and the impact of this association on fungal pathogenesis. Given its scope, the book will appeal to scientists in the fields of mycology, microbiology, infectious diseases, biology and medicine.

Milk and Dairy Products in Human Nutrition

Milk and Dairy Products in Human Nutrition
Author: Young W. Park,George F. W. Haenlein
Pages: 728
ISBN: 9781118534205
Available:
Release: 2013-04-09
Editor: John Wiley & Sons
Language: en

Explanation of the Book:

Milk is nature’s most complete food, and dairy productsare considered to be the most nutritious foods of all. Thetraditional view of the role of milk has been greatly expanded inrecent years beyond the horizon of nutritional subsistence ofinfants: it is now recognized to be more than a source of nutrientsfor the healthy growth of children and nourishment of adulthumans. Alongside its major proteins (casein and whey), milk containsbiologically active compounds, which have important physiologicaland biochemical functions and significant impacts upon humanmetabolism, nutrition and health. Many of these compounds have beenproven to have beneficial effects on human nutrition andhealth. This comprehensive reference is the first to address such a widerange of topics related to milk production and human health,including: mammary secretion, production, sanitation, qualitystandards and chemistry, as well as nutrition, milk allergies,lactose intolerance, and the bioactive and therapeutic compoundsfound in milk. In addition to cow’s milk, the book alsocovers the milk of non-bovine dairy species which is of economicimportance around the world. The Editors have assembled a team of internationally renownedexperts to contribute to this exhaustive volume which will beessential reading for dairy scientists, nutritionists, foodscientists, allergy specialists and health professionals.

Fungal Pigments

Fungal Pigments
Author: Laurent Dufossé,Yanis Caro,Mireille Fouillaud
Pages: 329
ISBN: 9783038427872
Available:
Release: 2018-03-23
Editor: MDPI
Language: en

Explanation of the Book:

This book is a printed edition of the Special Issue "Fungal Pigments" that was published in JoF

Amoebae as Host Models to Study the Interaction with Pathogens

Amoebae as Host Models to Study the Interaction with Pathogens
Author: Sascha Thewes,Thierry Soldati,Ludwig Eichinger
Pages: 169
ISBN: 9782889459353
Available:
Release: 2019-08-27
Editor: Frontiers Media SA
Language: en

Explanation of the Book:

The human body is constantly faced with microorganisms. Most of these bacteria, fungi, and viruses are harmless, many of them are beneficial, and a small fraction is pathogenic. For humans, infection with pathogenic microorganisms can be very serious or even fatal, ranging from mild transient or chronic infections to death. The first line of defence against pathogens is our innate immune system. Beside chemical and physical defence mechanisms of the innate immune system, phagocytic cells such as macrophages play a crucial role in the fight against pathogenic microorganisms. However, phagocytic cells and pathogens are in a constant evolutionary arms race, inventing new strategies to successfully kill pathogens and learning how to resist phagocytosis and intracellular killing, respectively. If pathogens are not obligatory adapted to the human body or other animals, they also have to face environmental phagocytes in the form of amoebae. Many aspects of phagocytosis and intracellular killing are surprisingly well conserved between amoebae and macrophages. Therefore, pathogens that have evolved with environmental amoebae as their “training grounds” can also be successful during infection of macrophages and other animal phagocytic cells. In this Research Topic, we provide the latest knowledge about the potential of using amoebae as host models to study the interaction with pathogens. The Research Topic covers the interaction of amoebae with bacteria, fungi, and viruses and also illustrates the similarities and differences between amoebae and macrophages. Investigation of evolutionary conserved pathways of amoebae and macrophages furthers our understanding of the biology of host-pathogen interactions and helps to develop new anti-infection therapies.

Microbial Physiology

Microbial Physiology
Author: Albert G. Moat,John W. Foster,Michael P. Spector
Pages: 715
ISBN: 9780471461197
Available:
Release: 2003-03-31
Editor: John Wiley & Sons
Language: en

Explanation of the Book:

The Fourth Edition of Microbial Physiology retains the logical, easy-to-follow organization of the previous editions. An introduction to cell structure and synthesis of cell components is provided, followed by detailed discussions of genetics, metabolism, growth, and regulation for anyone wishing to understand the mechanisms underlying cell survival and growth. This comprehensive reference approaches the subject from a modern molecular genetic perspective, incorporating new insights gained from various genome projects.