Inverting the Pyramid

Inverting the Pyramid
Author: Jonathan Wilson
Pages: 496
ISBN: 1474609295
Available:
Release: 2018-06-14
Editor: Weidenfeld & Nicolson
Language: un

Explanation of the Book:

TENTH ANNIVERSARY EDITION - NOW FULLY UPDATED In Inverting the Pyramid, Jonathan Wilson pulls apart the finer details of the world's game, tracing the global history of tactics, from modern pioneers right back to the beginning when chaos reigned. Along the way, he looks at the lives of great players and thinkers who shaped the sport and probes why the English, in particular, have 'proved themselves unwilling to grapple with the abstract'. This tenth-anniversary edition of a footballing modern classic has been fully updated to include the development of gegenpressing as pioneered by German coaches such as Ralf Rangnick and J�rgen Klopp, and its subsequent influence on the world game. It also analyses the tactical evolution of Pep Guardiola, the increasing alternatives to possession-based football and the changing role of the goalkeeper, as well as investigating the trend of full-backs developing into midfielders and the consequent return of three at the back.

Inverting The Pyramid

Inverting The Pyramid
Author: Jonathan Wilson
Pages: 480
ISBN: 9781568589268
Available:
Release: 2018-08-14
Editor: Bold Type Books
Language: un

Explanation of the Book:

“An outstanding work … the [soccer] book of the decade.” —Sunday Business Post Inverting the Pyramid is a pioneering soccer book that chronicles the evolution of soccer tactics and the lives of the itinerant coaching geniuses who have spread their distinctive styles across the globe. Through Jonathan Wilson's brilliant historical detective work we learn how the South Americans shrugged off the British colonial order to add their own finesse to the game; how the Europeans harnessed individual technique and built it into a team structure; how the game once featured five forwards up front, while now a lone striker is not uncommon. Inverting the Pyramid provides a definitive understanding of the tactical genius of modern-day Barcelona, for the first time showing how their style of play developed from Dutch “Total Football,” which itself was an evolution of the Scottish passing game invented by Queens Park in the 1870s and taken on by Tottenham Hotspur in the 1930s. Inverting the Pyramid has been called the “Big Daddy” (Zonal Marking) of soccer tactics books; it is essential for any coach, fan, player, or fantasy manager of the beautiful game

Inverting the Pyramid

Inverting the Pyramid
Author: Jonathan Wilson
Pages: 384
ISBN: 1409145867
Available:
Release: 2013-08-15
Editor: Orion
Language: un

Explanation of the Book:

In INVERTING THE PYRAMID, Jonathan Wilson pulls apart the finer details of the world's game, tracing the global history of tactics, from modern pioneers right back to the beginning when chaos reigned. Along the way, he looks at the lives of great players and thinkers who shaped the sport and probes why the English, in particular, have 'proved themselves unwilling to grapple with the abstract'. This fifth-anniversary edition of a football modern classic has been fully updated to include an investigation of the modern-day Barcelona and how their style of play developed from Total Football, which itself was an evolution of the Scottish passing game invented by Queens Park and taken on by Tottenham in the 1930s. It also analyses different styles in the early British game and the changing mentality of South American football in the 1970s, as well as looking at the birth of the 3-5-2 system so prevalent today.

The Inverting Pyramid

The Inverting Pyramid
Author: Anita M. Schwarz,Omar S. Arias,Asta Zviniene,Heinz P. Rudolph,Sebastian Eckardt,Johannes Koettl,Herwig Immervoll,Miglena Abels
Pages: 300
ISBN: 9780821399088
Available:
Release: 2014-02-21
Editor: World Bank Publications
Language: en

Explanation of the Book:

Europe’s pension systems –among the most celebrated features of its social welfare model— face tremendous challenges. With only 11 percent of the world’s population, Europe spends about 60 percent of global outlays on social protection, largely in pensions. In many countries, pension rules have encouraged people to retire sooner, while enjoying longer lives. Payroll taxes on a continuously expanding contributory base have financed these benefits. This model of pension provision is now being severely tested as pension systems reach maturity, while the population is aging and the labor force is starting to shrink. Measures to enable a continued tradition of providing old age security will include • raising retirement ages such that pensions are provided in the last 15 years of life, when work capacity traditionally diminishes • encouraging immigration to help fill the declining work force • rationalizing pension spending, putting priority on preventing old age poverty, and • encouraging savings to help provide the more comfortable retirement that individuals have come to expect. Some measures may be more appropriate in particular countries than others, yet undertaking all of them will likely require less drastic changes in any one of them. The specific choices will need to be discussed and agreed among each country’s own population, and be accompanied by enabling changes in pension policy, tax policy, financial markets policy, and labor policy. The fundamental issue is that, with these changes, the important achievements of European social policy can withstand the demographic onslaught and continue to provide old age security for generations to come.

The Outsider

The Outsider
Author: Jonathan Wilson
Pages: 320
ISBN: 9781409123200
Available:
Release: 2012-12-06
Editor: Orion
Language: en

Explanation of the Book:

'Aloof, solitary, impassive, the crack goalie is followed in the streets by entranced small boys. He vies with the matador and the flying aces, an object of thrilled adulation. He is the lone eagle, the man of mystery, the last defender' Vladimir Nabokov Albert Camus, Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, Yevgeny Yevtushenko, Pope John Paul II, Julian Barnes and not forgetting Nabokov himself ... it's safe to say the position of goalkeeper has over the years attracted a different sort of character than your average footballer. In this first-ever cultural history of the 'loner' between the posts, Jonathan Wilson traces the sometimes dangerous intellectual and literary preoccupations of the keeper, and looks at how the position has secured a certain existential cool. He travels to the Bassa region of Cameroon, which has produced two of Africa's greatest keepers, and also to Romania to talk to Helmuth Duckadam, who saved four penalties for Steaua Bucharest in the 1986 European Cup final. His absorbing tactical and technical insights into football history even take us back to the days when matches were contested without a man between the sticks. THE OUTSIDER is the definitive account of that most mysterious of footballing personalities - the goalkeeper.

The Barcelona Inheritance

The Barcelona Inheritance
Author: Jonathan Wilson
Pages: 352
ISBN: 9781568588537
Available:
Release: 2018-11-06
Editor: Nation Books
Language: en

Explanation of the Book:

From Cruyff's "Total Football" to the epic rivalry between Guardiola and Mourinho, a gripping chronicle of the rise and fall of Barcelona's dominance in world soccer. Barcelona's style of play--pressing and possessing--is the single biggest influence on modern soccer. In The Barcelona Inheritance, Jonathan Wilson reveals how and why this came to pass, offering a deep analysis of the evolution of soccer tactics and style. In the late 1990s, Johan Cruyff's Dream Team was disintegrating and the revolutionary manager had departed, but his style gave birth to a new generation of thinkers, including Pep Guardiola and José Mourinho. Today, their teams are first and second in the Premier League, marking the latest installment in a rivalry that can be traced back twenty-five years. The Barcelona Inheritance is a book about the tactics, the personalities, the friendships, and, in one case, an apocalyptic falling-out that continue to shape the game today.

The Way of the Web Tester

The Way of the Web Tester
Author: Jonathan Rasmusson
Pages: 258
ISBN: 9781680505146
Available:
Release: 2016-09-22
Editor: Pragmatic Bookshelf
Language: en

Explanation of the Book:

This book is for everyone who needs to test the web. As a tester, you'll automate your tests. As a developer, you'll build more robust solutions. And as a team, you'll gain a vocabulary and a means to coordinate how to write and organize automated tests for the web. Follow the testing pyramid and level up your skills in user interface testing, integration testing, and unit testing. Your new skills will free you up to do other, more important things while letting the computer do the one thing it's really good at: quickly running thousands of repetitive tasks. This book shows you how to do three things: How to write really good automated tests for the web. How to pick and choose the right ones. * How to explain, coordinate, and share your efforts with others. If you're a traditional software tester who has never written an automated test before, this is the perfect book for getting started. Together, we'll go through everything you'll need to start writing your own tests. If you're a developer, but haven't thought much about testing, this book will show you how to move fast without breaking stuff. You'll test RESTful web services and legacy systems, and see how to organize your tests. And if you're a team lead, this is the Rosetta Stone you've been looking for. This book will help you bridge that testing gap between your developers and your testers by giving your team a model to discuss automated testing, and most importantly, to coordinate their efforts. The Way of the Web Tester is packed with cartoons, graphics, best practices, war stories, plenty of humor, and hands-on tutorial exercises that will get you doing the right things, the right way.

Soccer iQ Presents High Pressure

Soccer iQ Presents High Pressure
Author: Dan Blank
Pages: 161
ISBN: 9780989697774
Available:
Release: 2017-03-23
Editor: SoccerPoet LLC
Language: en

Explanation of the Book:

In this installment of the Soccer iQ series, college soccer coach and best-selling author, Dan Blank, educates coaches and players on the most effective ways to implement a high-pressure style of team defending. Nearly 80% of goals scored are the result of three or fewer passes, and more than half of all goals scored begin when a team wins possession of the ball in its attacking half of the field. The numbers clearly indicate a statistical advantage to winning the ball in the opponent’s end of the field, and that’s exactly what high pressure is designed to do. High pressure is perhaps the most misunderstood term in soccer’s vocabulary. There are countless coaches who want their teams to play high pressure, but many of them aren’t always quite so sure about what that means. They tend to translate ‘high pressure’ into ‘run around like you stole something until we score.’ They only extract the urgency of which the term implies without much understanding of the nuance that makes high pressure a formidable system of team defense. Those coaches understand that high pressure requires a high work rate, but they don’t understand the tactical savvy that can maximize the output of that work. As a result, their teams feature only the madness but not the method behind successful high pressure. High Pressure provides an easy-to-follow blueprint for coaches and players so they know not only what to do, but why they are doing it. In this book, Dan Blank clarifies the differences between high and low pressure and explains the big picture of high pressure defending. You will learn the roles of each position, the importance of restraining lines, and how to set up pressure funnels to win the ball in the attacking half. Coach Blank also details the telltale cues that signal a team to step up or back off its pressure, and much, much more. High pressure defending requires more than just hard work. It requires organization, communication and an indefatigable team spirit. This book will show you how to create and implement these elements to get a maximum return on your team’s effort.

Anatomy of England

Anatomy of England
Author: Jonathan Wilson
Pages: 224
ISBN: 9781409113645
Available:
Release: 2010-05-20
Editor: Orion
Language: en

Explanation of the Book:

Having invented the game, everything that has followed for England and its national football team has been something of an anticlimax. There was, of course, the golden summer of 1966, and the great period of English dominance on the world stage, which fell roughly between 1886 and 1900, when England won 35 of their 40 internationals ... But before long foreign teams, with their insistence on progressive 'tactics', began to pose a few questions. And much of what followed for England constituted a series of false dawns. In THE ANATOMY OF ENGLAND Jonathan Wilson seeks to place the bright spots in context. Time and again, progressive coaches have been spurned by England - technique being all very well, but what really matters is pluck and 'organised muscularity', or, to quote Jimmy Hogan's chairman at Aston Villa in 1936: 'I've no time for these theories about football. Just get the ball in the bloody net.' Wilson takes ten key England fixtures and explores how what actually happened on the pitch shaped the future of the English game. Bursting with insight and critical detail, yet imbued with a wry affection, this is a history of England like none before.

Inverting the Pyramid

Inverting the Pyramid
Author: Jonathan Wilson
Pages: 374
ISBN: STANFORD:36105215536645
Available:
Release: 2008
Editor: Orion Publishing Company
Language: un

Explanation of the Book:

Whether it's Terry Venables keeping his wife up late at night with diagrams on scraps of paper spread over the eiderdown, or the classic TV sitcom of moving the salt & pepper around the table top in the transport cafe, football tactics are now part of the fabric of everyday life. Steve McLaren's recent switch to an untried 3-5-2 against Croatia will probably go down as the moment he lost his slim credibility gained from dropping David Beckham; Jose Mourinho, meanwhile, is often brought to task for trying to smuggle the long ball game back into English football (his defence being his need to 'break the lines' of banks of defenders and midfielders). Jonathan Wilson is an erudite and detailed writer, but never loses a sense of the grand narrative sweep, and here he pulls apart the modern game, traces the world history of tactics back from modern pioneers such as Rinus Michels and Valeriy Lobanovskyi, the Swiss origins of Catenaccio and Herbert Chapman, right back to beginning where chaos reigned. Along the way he looks at the lives of great players and thinkers who shaped the game, and probes why the English, in particular, have 'proved themselves unwilling to grapple with the abstract'. This is a modern classic of football writing to rank with David Winner's 'Brilliant Orange' and Simon Kuper's 'Football Against the Enemy'.

The Expected Goals Philosophy

The Expected Goals Philosophy
Author: James Tippett
Pages: 222
ISBN: 1089883188
Available:
Release: 2019-11-08
Editor: Unknown
Language: en

Explanation of the Book:

The Expected Goals method is football's best-kept secret. The metric gives unparalleled insight into which teams and players are performing at the highest level. Professional gamblers have used Expected Goals to make millions through football betting. Club scouts have used Expected Goals to identify hidden gems in the transfer market. And the media have recently started using Expected Goals to offer more profound insight in their broadcasts. Despite this, most ordinary fans still don't understand what the Expected Goals method is - or appreciate the significant impact that it is set to have on the sport in coming years. Expected Goals (otherwise known as xG) was originally conjured up by a small corner of the online football analytics community. It didn't take long for professional gamblers to begin using xG to predict match outcomes. These bettors utilised the Expected Goals method to turn over hundreds of millions of pounds from the bookmakers. Before long, football clubs had caught on to the ground-breaking insight given by xG. Brentford FC were leaders in this field, managing to assemble a Play-Off-reaching squad on a shoe-string budget. In the last five years, the small West London side have turned over more than £100m in transfer revenue from their use of the Expected Goals method in player recruitment. More recently, the Expected Goals method has been adopted by the media as a form of insight. Fans are finally catching on to the pioneering means of football analysis. Soon enough, anyone who doesn't understand the Expected Goals philosophy will be left behind. "This book will make you watch football differently" - Tobias Pedersen "Possibly the most ground-breaking football book ever written" - Football Impact "A brilliant account of the history and future of Expected Goals" - StatShot

Agendashift

Agendashift
Author: Mike Burrows
Pages: 230
ISBN: 9781800313569
Available:
Release: 2021-03-29
Editor: New Generation Publishing
Language: en

Explanation of the Book:

"Mike provides a path for new ways of working and thinking, new tools, and a new mindset for a continually changing reality. With his new book, he is showing a better way of working, where we can come together and intuitively understand how to move forward, even in challenging situations." "An impressive piece of culture technology - facilitates clear thinking and communication while encouraging real agreement at scale across the whole enterprise." "If you are a business leader looking for tools that facilitate real change in real organisations, this is your book." Extensively revised and adding a new final chapter, this second edition of Agendashift provides both the manual and the deep background for outcome-oriented change and continuous transformation. With its exercises explained in terms of memorable patterns such as Ideal, Obstacles, Outcomes (IdOO) and Meaning before Metric, the framework - an engagement model - is made significantly easier to understand and apply. Moreover, its generously-referenced and pluralistic style invites integration with a wide range of sources and encourages further innovation in this exciting and rapidly-developing field. Author and Agendashift founder Mike Burrows describes himself as "in the business of wholehearted organisations". Mike is recognised for his pioneering work in Lean, Agile, and Kanban, for his ground-breaking books Agendashift (2018, 2021), Right to Left (2019, audiobook 2020), and Kanban from the Inside(2014), and as a champion of participatory and outcome-oriented approaches to change, transformation, strategy, and leadership. Before embarking on his consulting career, he was global development manager and Executive Director at a top tier investment bank, and CTO for an energy risk management startup.

Behind the Curtain

Behind the Curtain
Author: Jonathan Wilson
Pages: 336
ISBN: 9781409109044
Available:
Release: 2012-04-09
Editor: Orion
Language: en

Explanation of the Book:

From the war-ravaged streets of Sarajevo, where turning up for training involved dodging snipers' bullets, to the crumbling splendour of Budapest's Bozsik Stadium, where the likes of Puskás and Kocsis masterminded the fall of England, the landscape of Eastern Europe has changed immeasurably since the fall of communism. Jonathan Wilson has travelled extensively behind the old Iron Curtain, viewing life beyond the fall of the Berlin Wall through the lens of football. Where once the state-controlled teams of the Eastern bloc passed their way with crisp efficiency - a sort of communist version of total football - to considerable success on the European and international stages, today the beautiful game in the East has been opened up to the free market, and throughout the region a sense of chaos pervades. The threat of totalitarian interference no longer remains; but in its place mafia control is generally accompanied with a crippling lack of funds. In BEHIND THE CURTAIN Jonathan Wilson goes in search of the spirit of Hungary's 'Golden Squad' of the early fifties, charts the disintegration of the footballing superpower that was the former Yugoslavia, follows a sorry tale of corruption, mismanagement and Armenian cognac through the Caucasuses, reopens the case of Russia's greatest footballer, Eduard Streltsov, and talks to Jan Tomaszewski about an autumn night at Wembley in 1973...

The Anatomy of Liverpool

The Anatomy of Liverpool
Author: Jonathan Wilson,Scott Murray
Pages: 224
ISBN: 9781409144427
Available:
Release: 2013-11-21
Editor: Orion
Language: en

Explanation of the Book:

Jonathan Wilson and Scott Murray provide a forensic analysis of ten key Liverpool games that have shaped the club's fortunes over the last century: from the long-lost triumphs of Tom Watson (a 19th-century Bill Shankly) to 1970s European triumphs over the likes of Borussia Monchengladbach and the mind-blowing 2005 comeback against AC Milan. Aston Villa v. Liverpool April 1899 Wolves v. Liverpool May 1947 Liverpool v. Leeds FA Cup final, May 1965 Liverpool v. Crvena Zvezda November 1973 Liverpool v. Borussia Mönchengladbach European Cup final, May 1977 Liverpool v. Roma European Cup final, May 1984 Liverpool v. Nottingham Forest April 1988 Everton v. Liverpool February 1991 Roma v. Liverpool February 2001 AC Milan v. Liverpool Champions League final, May 2005

Angels with Dirty Faces

Angels with Dirty Faces
Author: Jonathan Wilson
Pages: 224
ISBN: 1409126943
Available:
Release: 2017-09-21
Editor: Orion
Language: en

Explanation of the Book:

The definitive history of Argentinian football from the award-winning author of Inverting the Pyramid Diego Maradona, Gabriel Batistuta, Juan Rom�n Riquelme, Sergio Ag�ero, Lionel Messi ... Argentina is responsible for some of the greatest footballers on the planet. Their rich, volatile history is made up of both the sublime and the ruthlessly pragmatic. Argentina is a nation obsessed with football, and Jonathan Wilson, having lived there on and off during the last decade, is ideally placed to chart the five phases of Argentinian football: the appropriation of the British game; the golden age of la nuestra, the exuberant style of playing that developed as Juan Per�n led the country into isolation; a hardening into the brutal methods of anti-f�tbol; the fusing of beauty and efficacy under C�sar Luis Menotti; and the ludicrous (albeit underachieving) creative talent of recent times. More than any other nation Argentina lives and breathes football, its theories and myths. The subject is fiercely debated on street corners and in cafes. It has even preoccupied the country's greatest writers and philosophers. Angels with Dirty Faces is the definitive history of a great footballing nation and its many paradoxes.

The Mixer The Story of Premier League Tactics from Route One to False Nines

The Mixer  The Story of Premier League Tactics  from Route One to False Nines
Author: Michael Cox
Pages: 496
ISBN: 9780008215569
Available:
Release: 2017-06-01
Editor: HarperCollins UK
Language: en

Explanation of the Book:

An absolutely essential book for every modern football fan, about the development of Premier League tactics, published to coincide with 25 years of the competition.

Das Reboot

Das Reboot
Author: Raphael Honigstein
Pages: 288
ISBN: 9781568585314
Available:
Release: 2015-10-06
Editor: Bold Type Books
Language: en

Explanation of the Book:

“A beautiful story, expertly told.” —Per Mertesacker, Arsenal defender and member of the German national team, winners of the 2014 World Cup Estádio do Maracanã, July 13, 2014, the last ten minutes of extra time in the World Cup Final: German forward Mario Götze jumps to meet a floated pass from André Schürrle, cushions the ball with his chest, and in one fluid motion volleys the ball past the onrushing Argentine goalkeeper into the far corner of the net. The goal wins Germany the World Cup for the first time in almost thirty years. As the crowd roars, Götze looks dazed, unable to comprehend what he has done. In Das Reboot, Raphael Honigstein charts the return of German soccer from the dreary functionality of the late 1990s to Götze's moment of sublime, balletic genius and asks: How did this come about? The answer takes him from California to Stuttgart, from Munich to the Maracanã, via Dortmund and Amsterdam. Packed with exclusive interviews with key figures, including Jürgen Klinsmann, Thomas Müller, Oliver Bierhoff, and many more, Honigstein's book reveals the secrets of German soccer's success.

How to Watch Football

How to Watch Football
Author: Ruud Gullit
Pages: 288
ISBN: 0241978009
Available:
Release: 2017-08-03
Editor: Unknown
Language: en

Explanation of the Book:

How can one striker be better than three? Why do the best defenders never need to make a tackle? What's the secret of Tiki-taka? Welcome to Ruud Gullit's masterclass on how to 'read' a match. From his unrivalled perspective as player, manager and pundit, the Dutch football legend shows us everything to look for in a 90 minute match. From formations and tactical decisions to player qualities and pivotal moments, Ruud Gullit unveils the hidden patterns on the pitch. Packed with his acute insights, original observations and talking points, How to Watch Football will quite simply change the way you see the beautiful game.

Bring the Noise

Bring the Noise
Author: Raphael Honigstein
Pages: 352
ISBN: 9781568589589
Available:
Release: 2018-02-06
Editor: Bold Type Books
Language: en

Explanation of the Book:

JüKlopp's coaching career began in the German second tier at the unfashionable club of FSV Mainz 05, whom he steered to the Bundesliga for the first time in forty-one years. In 2008, he joined Borussia Dortmund, where he achieved back-to-back league titles and took the club to the UEFA Champions League final. He left Germany for one of the England's most challenging jobs: to manage Liverpool, a once-mighty club that had not managed sustained success since the 1980s. It was not a task for the fainthearted. Anfield, Liverpool's home, is a temple to flamboyant attacking soccer powered by passion. In Klopp, Liverpool finally found a manager who embodied the essence of the club. Klopp is dynamic, expressive, restless, driven-he feels every move and play, every tactical shift, every contact on the field. His eyes betray a wild ecstasy and agony as his team thrives or falls. His game plan demands relentless commitment-the famous gegenpress-and he is one of the great personal motivators in all sport. Raphael Honigstein, author of Das Reboot and Budesliga correspondent for the Guardian, has interviewed Klopp and followed his career since his early years, and better than anyone knows how to "bring the noise" to his subject.

Lipstick on a Pig

Lipstick on a Pig
Author: Torie Clarke
Pages: 272
ISBN: 9780743282475
Available:
Release: 2006-02-06
Editor: Simon and Schuster
Language: en

Explanation of the Book:

Torie Clarke, renowned and respected in political and business circles as one of the nation's most gifted communicators, offers a complete guide to the new age of transparency. Clarke's message is refreshing and straightforward: No more spin. Always a dubious proposition, spin has become increasingly vulnerable as information sources have proliferated; spin is simply no longer viable. Or put another way, "You can put lipstick on a pig, but it's still a pig." Distilling her twenty-five years of experience and wisdom into eight concise rules, Clarke counsels that politicians and executives need to tell the truth early, often, and in plain language. Clarke's experience is incomparable: She was the Pentagon's communications chief during the early years of George W. Bush's presidency and, prior to that, a high-ranking adviser to the first President Bush and to Senator John McCain. She illustrates her lessons with riveting behind-the-scenes accounts of some of our country's crucial moments over the last two decades -- for instance, as Assistant Secretary of Defense for Public Affairs under Defense Secretary Donald Rumsfeld, she was at the Pentagon on September 11, 2001, and she recounts her experience that day as Rumsfeld's office strove to inform, instruct, and reassure the public. Clarke shows that a policy of transparency not only protects you, but that you even stand to gain from it -- because once you figure out that you can't put lipstick on a pig, you've actually learned something far more powerful: not to create a pig in the first place. Her lessons for getting your message out include: Tell your own story -- especially if it's bad news -- on your own terms, before someone else tells it on theirs. It will allow you to survive controversy and will also enhance your reputation. It's about one thing. Be ready and able to explain yourself to the proverbial man on the street in a clear, simple sentence or two. Admit your mistakes, because the truth will out. Entertaining, approachable, and full of crucial insight and practical guidance, Lipstick on a Pig will be indispensable for business leaders, public figures, and anyone working in media relations. With humor and savvy, Clarke's vision offers truly new opportunities for communications in the Information Age.